CONSCIENCE (kon'shens), (Lat. conscientia, consciousness; Gr. cruvelb7jois, soon-:"day-sis).
(1) Views Regarding Conscience. t. J. Stuart Mill. Strictly, the name is applicable to the power by which we know moral law. Popularly, the name is given indiscriminately to the knowing power, and to the dipositions and sentiments con cerned with morals. "The internal sanction of duty, whatever our standard of duty may be, is one and the same—a feeling in our own mind. a pain more or less intense, attendant on violation of duty....This feeling, when disinterested, and connecting itself with the pure idea of duty, and not with some particular form of it, or with any of the merely accessory circumstances, is the es sence of conscience." J. S. Mill, Utilitarianism, P. 4.
2. Bain. "1 entirely dissent from Dugald Stewart, and the great majority of writers on the theory of morals, who represent conscience as a primitive and independent faculty of the mind, which would be developed in us, although we never had any experience of external authority. On the contrary, I maintain that conscience is an imitation within ourselves of the government without us."—Bain. Emotions and Will, 3d ed., p. 285.
3. Sedgwick. "I find that I undoubtedly seem to perceive, as clearly and certainly as I see any axiom in arithmetic or geometry, that it is 'right' and 'reasonable,' and the 'dictate of reason,' and 'my duty,' to treat every man as I should think that I myself ought to be treated in pre cisely similar circunistatiees."—Sedgwick. Meth
ods of Ethics, 470. (Fleming, Vocal). of Phil.) 4. Schaff. Conscience is the inborn sense of right and wrong, the moral law written on our hearts which judges of the moral character of our motives and actions, and approves or censures. condemns or justifies us accordingly. Rom. ii: 15. This universal tribunal is established in the breast of every man, even the heathen. It may he weakened, perverted, stupefied, defiled, and hard ened in various ways, and its decisions are more or less clear, just, and imperative according to the degree of moral culture. John viii :9; Acts xxiii: t; xxiv :16; Rom. ix :1; and I Tim. i :5.
(2) Terms Applied to Conscience. In Ethics, a large number of terms have arisen, in which indicated the various theoretical and practical judgments involved in its questions. Among the most important of these are the following : approv ing and disapproving; careless, lax, morbid, nar row, inicrologic, solicitous about trifles ; scrupu lous: certain and uncertain ; proportional ; complete and incomplete ; concomitant, when it regards things present ; consequent, things past ; antece dent. things future ; dissuading and persuading; natural ; educated and uneducated ; erroneous and right ; free and servile ; gnawing, biting, stinging, wounded ; good and bad; tranquil, calm, quiet ; im probable and probable; torpid and wakeful. (Fleming).