HADAD (ba'cad), (Heb. 1:1:1, had-ad' fierce).
The name of the chief deity of the Syrians, and borne, with or without additions, as a proper name, or more probably as a title, like 'Pharaoh' in Egypt, by several of the kings of Southern Syria.
(1) Kings of Edom. (i ) Hadad, king of Edom, who defeated the Midianites in the intervening territory of Moab (Gen. xxxvi :35; Chron. i : 46)• This is the only one of the ancient kings of Edom whose exploits are recorded by Moses. (2) Another king of Edom of the same name is mcntioned in I Chron. :51 (B. C. before 1618).
(2) King of Syria. Hadad, king of Syria, who reigned in Damascus at the time that David at tacked and defeated Hadadezer, king of Zobah, whom he marched to assist, and shared in his defeat (B. C. about to4o). This fact is recorded in 2 Sam. viii :5, but the name of the king is not given. It is supplied, however, by Josephus (Antiq. vii:5, 2), who reports, after Nicolas of Damascus, that he carried succors to Hadadezer as far as the Euphrates, where David defeated them both.
(3) Prince of Edom. Hadad, a young prince of the royal race of Edom, who, when his coun try was conquered by David, contrived, in the heat of the massacre committed by Joab, to es cape with some of his father's servants, or rather was carried off by them into the land of Midian, B. C. about 984 (1 Kings xi :14). Thence Hadad went into the desert of Paran, and eventually proceeded to Egypt. He was there most favor ably received by the king, who assigned him an estate and establishment suited to his rank, and even gave him in marriage the sister of his own consort, by whom he had a son, who was brought up in the palace with the sons of Pharaoh. Hadad
remained in Egypt till after the death of David and Joab, when he returned to his own country in the hope of recovering his father's throne (1 Kings xi :14-22). The Scriptures do not record the result of this attempt further than by men tioning him as one of the troublers of Solomon's reign, which implies some measure of success. After relating these facts the text goes on to mention another enemy of Solomon, named Rezin, and then adds (verse 25), that this was 'besides the mischief that Hadad did ; and he abhorred Israel and reigned over Syria.' The A. V. seems to make this apply to Rezin, but the Septuagint refers it to Hadad, reading Edanz, instead of Arawnt or Syria, and the sense would certainly be improved by this reading, inasmuch, as it sup plies an apparent omission ; for without it we only know that Hadad left Egypt for Edom, and not how he succeeded there, or how he was able to trouble Solomon. The history of Hadad is certainly very obscure. Adopting the Septuagint reading, some conclude that Pharaoh used his interest with Solomon to allow Hadad to reign as a tributary prince, and that he ultimately asserted his independence.
(4) Son of Ishmael. A son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv :15; Chron. i :3o), whose descendants prob ably occupied the western coast of the Persian Gulf.