MATTHIAS (mat-thi'as), (Gr. Marelas, ntat thee'as, gift of Jehovah, equivalent to Matthew), one of the seventy disciples who was chosen by lot, in preference to Joseph Barsabas, into the number of the Apostles, to supply the deficiency caused by the treachery and death of Judas (Acts i:23-26).
This is the sole instance of the lot being employed in the history of the Apostolic Church. and it occurs significantly between the Ascension and Pentecost, when the disciples were 'orphans' (John xiv :18). Stier ( Words of the Apostles, in loc.) regards this election as premature and un warranted, the outcome of St. Peter's officious impetuosity. 'The lot fell : not the Lord chose.' He holds that St. Paul was the true successor of Judas, chosen, like the other Apostles, by the Lord himself. It may be granted that the ap pointment of Matthias stands on a somewhat lower level than that of the original Twelve and of St. Paul ; but, in the absence of any direction to the contrary, the procedure was a legitimate exercise of human wisdom in dependence upon Divine guidance: and St. Luke. the 'beloved' friend of St. Paul, appears to endorse the election (representing. doubtless, the general opinion of the Apostolic Church) ; for after speaking of the eleven Apo.stles (Acts i :25) he refers (Acts vi: z) to the 'Twelve.' (H. Cowan, Hastings' Bib. Dict.) According to Grotius, the lot was taken by means of two urns. In one they placed two rolls of paper, with the names of Joseph and Alatthias written within them, and in the other, two rolls, one with the word "apostle" and the other blank; and one roll was drawn from each urn simulta neously. Clarke (Com.) thinks that the selection
was hy ballot, the Lord directing the mind of the majority to vote for Matthias. In the case of selection by lot there was no chance, for "the lot is cast into the lap (properly urn) ; but thc whole disposing thereof is of the Lord" (Prov. xvi :33).
Nothing sure is known of hi. subsequent career, although according to one tradition, lie preached in Ethiopia and suffered martyrdom there ; ac cording to another, Ile labored in Judwa and was stoned by the Jews.
Others hold that he was a martyr—by crucifix ion—in Ethiopia or Colchis. An apocryphal gos pel was published under his name, and Clement lf Alexandria quotes from the Traditions of Mat hias.
MATTITMATi (mat'ti-thrah), (Heb.
mat-tith-yaw' , gift of Jehovah; prolonged form, mat-tith-yaw' hoo).
1. A son of Jcduthun, the Levite, and leader of the fourteenth course of Temple musicians in the time of David (1 Citron. xxv :3, 21). (B. C. 1°14.) He was probably the doorkeeper of the ark, appointed by David (1 Chron. xv :18, 21; xvi :5).
2. One of the "sons" of Nebo, who put away his Gentile wife after the exile (Ezra x :43). (B.
C. 459.) 3. Son of Shallum, a Korhite Levite, who had charge of the baked offerings of the Temple after the exile (1 Chron. ix:31). (B. C. 44o).
4. One of those who stood on Ezra's right when he read the law to the people (Neh. viii: 4)• (B. C. 41o.) 6. Son of Semei in the genealogy of Christ (Luke iii :26) ; but the name is probably an inter polation of 6.
6. Son of Amos, in the genealogy of Christ (Luke iii :25). (B. C. after 06.)