(2) Woven Coat. The coat of fine linen or cotton. (Exod. xxxix :27) which was worn by of needlework' (Exod. xxxix :29). Josepluis de scribes it as often going round, four lingers broad, but so loosely woven that it might be taken for the skin of a serpent ; and that it was embroidered with flowers of scarlet, and purple, and blue, but that the warp was nothing but linen. The be ginning of its circumvolution was at the breast ; and when it had gone often round, it was there tied, and hung loosely down to the ankles while the priest was not engaged in any laborious serv ice, for in that position it appeared in the most men in general (Gen. xxxvii :3) ; also by women (2 Sam. xiii :18; Cant. v :3), next to the skin. It was to be of woven work. Josephus states that it reached down to the feet, and sat close to the body ; and had sleeves, which were tied fast to the arms; and was girded to the breast a little above the elbows by a girdle. It had a narrow aperture about the neck, and was tied with certain strings hanging down from the edge over the breast and back, and was fastened above each shoulder (Antiq. iii, 7, 2). But this garment, in the case of the priests and high-priest, was to be broidered (Exod. :4). A broidered coat, by which Gesenius understands a coat of cloth worked in checkers or cells.
(3) The Girdle. (Exod. xxviii :4o; Lev. xvi : 4). This was also worn by magistrates (Is. xxii : 211. The girdle for the priests was to be made 'of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, agreeable manner to the spectators; but when he was obliged to assist at the offering of sacrifices, and to do the appointed service, in order that he might not be hindered in his operations by its motion, he threw it to the left hand, and bore it on his right shoulder (Anliq. iii, 7, 2).
(4) The Cap. The bonnet, cap, or turban (Exod. xxviii :4o; Ezek. xliv :18) was to be of fine linen (xxxix :28). In the time of Josephus it was circular, covering about half the head, something like a crown made of thick linen swathes doubled round many times, and sewed together, sur rounded by a linen cover to hide the seams of the swathes, and sat so close that it would not fall off when the body was bent down (Antiq. 7, 3) • 2. Dress of the High-Priest. The dress of the high-priest was precisely the same with that of the common priests in all the foregoing par ticulars.
(1) The Robe. In addition to the above he had a robe, or tunic (Exod. xxviii:4). This was nut a mantle, but a second and larger coat without sleeves; a kind of surtout worn by the laity, es pecially persons of distinction (Job i :20 ; ii :I2, by kings; I Sam. xv :27; xviii :4; xxiv :5, t2). This garment, when intended for the high-priest, and then called 'the robe of the ephod: was to be of one entire piece of woven work, all of blue, with an aperture for the neck in the middle of the upper part, having its rim strengthened and adorned with a border. The hem had a kind of
fringe, composed of tassels, made of blue, purple, and scarlet, in the form of pomegranates; and be tween every two pomegranates there was a small golden bell, so that there was a bell and a pomegranate alternately all round (Exod. xxviii: 31-35). The use of these hells may have partly been, that by the high-priest shaking his garment at the time of his offering incense on the great day of expiation, etc., the people without might be apprised of it, and unite their prayers with it (comp. Ecclus. xlv :9; Luke i :to; Acts x:4; Rev. viii :3, 4). Josephus describes this robe of the ephod as reaching to the feet, and consist ing of one entire piece of woven-work, and parted where the hands came out (John xix :23). He also states that it was tied round with a girdle, embroidered with the same colors as the former, with a mixture of gold interwoven (Antic]. iii, 7, 4). It is highly probable that this garment was also derived from Egyptian usage. There are instances at Thebes of priests wearing over the coat a loose sleeveless robe, and which exposes the sleeves oi the inner tunic. The fringe of bells and pomegranates seems to have been the priestly substitute for the fringe bound with a blue riband, which all the Israelites were com manded to wear. Many traces of this fringe occur in the Egyptian remains. The use assigned to it, `that looking on this fringe they should remember the Lord's commandments,' seems best explicable by the supposition that the Egyptians had con nected some superstitious ideas with it (Num. xv :37-4o).
(2) The Ephod. This is mentioned in Exod. xxviii :4, It was a short cloak covering the shoulders and breast. It is said to have been worn by Samuel while a youth ministering before the Lord (t Sam. ii :18) ; by David, while en gaged in religious service (a Sam. v1:14) ; and by inferior priests (I Sam. xxii:t8). But in all these instances it is distinguished as a linen ephod, but the ephod of the high-priest was to be made of gold, of blue, of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work. Though it prob ably consisted of one piece, woven throughout, it had a back part and a front part, united by shoulder-pieces. It had also a girdle: or rather strings went out from each side and tied it to the body. On the top of each shoulder was to be an onyx stone, set in sockets of gold, each hav ing engraven upon it six of the names of the children of Israel, according to the precedence of birth, to memorialize the Lord of the prom ises made to them (Exod. xxviii:6-t2, 29). Josephus gives sleeves to the ephod (Antiq. 7, 5). It may be considered as a substitute for the leopard-skin worn by the Egyptian high priests in their most sacred duties.