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Aralia
Aralia, Berry-bcaring Angelica, In Bo Tany, A Genus Of The Pentandria Pentagy. Nia Class Of Plants, The Flowers Of Which Are Collected Into An Umbel, Of A Globose Figure, With A Very Small Involucrum ; The Perianthium Is Very Small, Divided Into Five Parts, Ancl Placcil On The Germen ; ...

Archimedes
Archimedes, In Biography, One Of The Most Celebrated Mathematicians Among The Ancients, Who Flourished About 250 Years Before Christ, Being About 50 Years Later Than Euclid. Lie Was Born At Syracuse In Sicily, And Was Related To Hiero, Who Was Then King Of That City. The Mathematical Genius Of Archimedes ...

Architecture
Architecture - All The Variety Of Edifices Appropriated To The Purposes Of Civil Life Is Denominat Ed Civil Architecture. It Is A Very Difficult Matter For Us At This Day To Trace The Earliest Stage Of This Art, So Indispensible To Our Comfort And Pro Tection In A Natural Or ...

Arctomys
Arctomys, The Rnartnot, In Natural History, A Genus Of The Ntammalia Class Of Animals, Of Which The Generic Charac Ter Is, Front Teeth Two In Each Jaw, Strong, Sharp, And Cuneated ; Grinders In The Up Per Jaw, Five On Each Side, In The Lower Jaw Four ; Clavicles Or ...

Arctus
Arctus, In Astronomy, The Greek Name For The Ursa Major And Minor. Audi:agin Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Of Grallie. The Cha Racters Of This Genus Arc, A Long, Strong, Sharp-pointed Bill ; Nostrils Linear ; Tongue Pointed ; Toes Connected By A Membrane As Far ...

Argument
Argument, In Rhetoric And Logic, An Inference Drawn From Premises, The Truth Of Which Is Indisputable, Orat Least Highly Probable. The Arguments Of Orators Receive Par Ticular Denominations, According To The Topics From Whence They Are Derived: Thus, We Meet With Arguments From Af Fection, Which Interest The Passions Of ...

Arians
Arians, A Denomination Of Christians That Take Their Name From Arius, A Pres Byter Of Alexandria, Who Flourished In The Year 315. The Propagation Of This Doc Trine Was The Occasion Of The Celebrated Council Of Nice By Constantine, In The Year 325. Arius Christ To Be God. In A ...

Aristocracy
Aristocracy, A Form Of Government, Where The Supreme Power Is Vested In The Principal Persons Of The State, Either On Account Of Their Nobility, Or Their Ca Pacity And Probity. Aristocracies, Says Archdeacon Paley, Are Of Two Kinds; First, Where The Power Of The Nobility Belongs To Them In Their ...

Arithmetic
Arithmetic, The Art Of Numbering ; Or, That Part Of Mathematics Which Consi Ders The Powers And Properties Of Num Bers, And Teaches How To Compute Or Calculate Truly, And With Expedition And Ease. By Some Authors It Is Also Defined The Science Of Discreet Quantity. It Con Sists Chiefly ...

Armada
Armada, A Spanish Term, Signifying A Fleet Of Men Of War ; It Is More Particu Larly Applied To The Ships By Which An At Tempt Was Made, By Philip Ii. Of Spain, To Invade England, In The Reign Of Queen Elizabeth, A. D. 1588. This Expedition Was Excited As ...

Arminians
Arminians, In Church History, A Sect Of Christians Which Arose In Holland, By A Separation From The Calvinists. They Are Great Asserters Of Free-will. They Speak Very Ambiguously Of The Prescience Of God. They Look On The Doctrine Of The Trinity As A Point Not Necessary To Salvation ; And ...

Army
Army, A Large Body Of Soldiers, Con Sisting Of Horse And Foot, Completely Arm Ed, And Provided With Artillery, Ammuni Tion, Provisions, &c. Under The Command Of One General, Having Lieutenant-gene Rals, Major-generals, Brigadiers And Other Officers Under Him. An Army Is Composed Of Squadrons And Battalions, And Is Usu ...

Arrest
Arrest, In Civil Cases, Is A Legal Re Straint Of A Person Charged With Some Debt To An Individual : And, In Criminal Cases, For Some Crime Against The State; And It Is Executed In Pursuance Of The Command Of Some Court Of Record, Or Offi Cer Of Justice. Certain ...

Arsenic
Arsenic, As It Is To Be Found In The Shops, Occurs In The State Of A White Ox Ide, From Which The Metal May Be Obtain Ed By The Following Process. Mix Two Parts Of The White Oxide With One Part Of Black Flux (prepared By Detonating In A Crucible ...

Arson
Arson, Is House Burning, And Burn Ing The House Of Another Is Felony. Cr. Law, Case 143. It Must Be Maliciously And Voluntarily, And An Actual Burning ; Not Putting Fire Only Into A House, Or Any Part Of It, Without Burning ; But If Part Of The House Be ...

Arsurance
Arsurance On Lives, Secures A Sum Of Money To Be Received On The Extinction Of Any Life, In Consideration Of All Annual Premium Paid To The Assurer During The Continuance Of The Life. Such Assurances Are Made For A Given Term Or Years, Or During The Whole Continuance Of The ...

Artemisia
Artemisia, In Botany, A Genus Of Plants Of The Syngenesia Superflua Class And Order. Essen. Char. Receptacle Naked Or Villous ; Calyx Imbricate, With Rounded Connivent Scales ; Florets Of The Margin Subulate, Very Entire. This Genus Is Se Parated Into Four Divisions ; A. Shrubs Or Undershrubs ; Of ...

Artificers
Artificers, Those Who Work With The Hands, And Manufacture Any Kind Of Commodity In Iron, Brass, Wood, &c. Ar Tificers Are The Same With What We Other Wise Call Handicrafts And Such Are Smiths, Carpenters, Tailors, Shoema Kers, Weavers, And The Like. The Roman Artificers Had Their Peculiar Temples, Where ...

Artillery
Artillery, In The Most Appropriate Application Of The Word, Means The Can Non, Mortars, Howitzers, And Other Large Pieces For Discharging Shot And Shells By The Expansive Force Of Inflamed Gunpow Der, As Used In The Land Service. In A More Enlarged Sense, The Word Denotes Engines Of War Of ...

Artist
Artist, In A General Sense, A Person Skilled In Some Art ; Or, According To Mr. Harris's Definition, A Person Possessing An Habitual Power Of Becoming The Cause Of Some Effect, According To A System Of Va Rious And Well-approved Precepts. In This Sense, We Say, An Excellent, A Curious ...

Artocarpus
Artocarpus, In Botany, Tree. Class, Monoecia Monandria. Male Flowers, Cal. None ; Ament Cylindrical, All Covered With Florets ; Cor. To Each Two Petals, Oblong, Concave, Blunt, Villose ; Stam. Filaments Single, Within Each Corolla, Filiform, The Length Of The Corolla ; Anther Oblong. Female Flowers, On The Same Tree ...

Arts
Arts, Fine. The Fine Arts May Be Pro Perly Defined Those, Which, Blending Ele Gant Ornament With Utility, Convey In Tellectual Pleasure To The Mind, Through The Medium Of The Fancy Or Imagination. They Are Termed Elegant Or Fine Arts, Not In Opposition To Those Which Are Necessary Or Useful, ...

Arum
Arum, In Botany, A Genus Of Plants Of The Monoecia Hexandria Class And Order. Spathe One-leafed ; Convolute At The Base: Spadix Cylindrical Androgynous, Naked Above, Bearing The Stamina In The Middle, And The Germs At The Base. There Are Three Divisions, And Upwards Of Thirty Species. A. Without Stems ...

Arundelian
Arundelian Marbles, Called Also The Parian Chronicle, Are Supposed To Be An Cient Stones, On Which Is Inscribed A Chro Nicle Of The City Of Athens, Engraven In Capital Letters In The Island Of Paros, One Of The Cyclades, 264 Years Before The Christian Mra. They Are Frequently De Nominated ...

Ascension
Ascension, In Astronomy, The Rising Of' The Sun Or Star, Or Any Part Of The Equi Noctial With It, Above The Horizon : Is Ei Their Right Or Oblique. Right Ascension Is That Degree Of The Equator, Reckoned From The Beginning Of Aries, Which Rises With The Sun, Or A ...

Ascent
Ascent Of Fluids, Is Particularly Un Derstood Of Their Rising Above Their Own Level, Between The Surfaces Of Nearly Con Tiguous Bodies, Or In Slender Capillary Glass Tubes, Or In Vessels Filled With Sand, Ashes, Or The Like Porous Substances. This Effect Happens As Well In Vacuo As In The ...

Asparagus
Asparagus, In Gardening, Comprehends One Of The Most Valuable Esculent Vegeta Bles Of The Kitchen-garden ; It Has Erect, Herbaceous Stalks, Three Or Four Feet In Height, And Very Fine Bristly Leaves : It Is A Perennial Fibrous-rooted Vegetable, The Roots Being Of Many Years Duration, But The Tops Or ...

Asphaltum
Asphaltum, In Chemistry, One Ofthe Proper Bitumens, Found In Great Abun Dance In Different Countries, Especially In The Island Of Trinidad, On The Shores Of The Red Sea, And In Albania, Where It Is Found In Vast Strata. It Is Supposed That It Was First Liquid, And That It Acquired ...

Assaying
Assaying, Is A Term Particularly Ap Plied To The Separation Of Gold Or Silver From Other Metals. In Its More Extended Meaning, It Is Used For The Determination Of The Quantity Of Any Metal Whatsoever In, Composition With Any Other Metal Or Mineral. The Assaying Of Gold Or Silver Is ...

Assi Se
Assi Se, In Old Law-books, Is Defined To Be An Assembly Of Knights And Other Sub Stantial Men, With The Justice, In A Certain Place, And At A Certain Time : But The Word, M Its Present Acceptation, Is Used For The Court, Place, Or Time, When And Where The ...

Assimilation
Assimilation, In Animal Economy, Is That Process, By Which The Different In Gredients Of The Blood Are Made Parts Of The Various Organs Of The Body. Over The Nature Of Assimilation, Says Dr. Thom Son, The Thickest Darkness Hangs ; There Is No Key To Explain It, Nothing To Lead ...

Aster
Aster, In Botany, St.rwort. Class, Syngenesia Polygarnia Stiperflua. Gen. Char. Cal. Common, Imbricate, The Inner Scales Prominent A Little At The End, Low Er Ones Spreading ; Cor. Compound, Radi Ate; Corollules Hermaphrodite, Numerous In The Disk ; Females More Than 10 In The Ray ; Proper Of The Hermaphro ...

Astronomy
Astronomy, Is The Science Which Treats Of The Motions, Periods, Eclipses, Magnitudes, Re. Of The Heavenly Bodies, Of The Laws By Which These Are Regulated, And Of The Causes On Which They Depend. It Is Unquestionably The Most Sublime Of All The Sciences. No Subject Has Been Longer Or More ...

Atmosphere
Atmosphere Is That Invisible Elastic Fluid Which Surrounds The Earth To An Un Known Height, And Encloses It On All Sides. This Fluid Is Essential To The Existence Of All Animal And Vegetable Life, And Even To The Constitution Of All Kinds Of Matter Whatever, Without Which They Would Not ...

Atropa
Atropa, In Botany, A Genus Of The Pentandria Monogynia Class Of Plants, The Flower Of Which Consists Of A Single Funnel-fashioned Petal ; The Fruit Is A Glo Bose Berry, Containing Two Cells, Wherein The Seeds Inclosed Are Numerous And Kid Ney-shaped. There Are Eight Species, Of Which We Notice, ...

Attornies
Attornies At Law, Are Such Persons As Take Upon Them The Business Of Other Men, Bywhonf They Are Retained. By The 2 Geo: Ii. Cap. 23. S. 5, No Person Shall Be Permitted To Act As An Attorney, Or To Sue Out Any Process In The Name Of Any Other ...

Attraction
Attraction, A General Term, Used To Denote The Power Or Principle By Which Bodies Mutually Tend Towards Each Other, Without Regarding The Cause Or Ac Tion That May Be The Means Of Producing The Effect. The Philosopher Anaxagoras, Who Lived About 500 Years Before The Christian Xra, Is Generally Considered ...

Aurora
Aurora Borealis, Or Aurora Septen Trionalis, In Physiology, The Northern Dawn Or Light, Sometimes Called Streamers, Is An Extraordinary Meteor, Or Luminous Ap Pearance, Skewing Itselfin The Night-time In The Northern Part Of The Heavens ; And Most Usually In Frosty Weather. It Is Usual Ly Of A Reddish Colour, ...

Avena
Avena, In Botany, Oat-grass, Class Triandria Digynia ; Natural Order, Grami Na. Generic Character ; Calyx, .glume Generally Many-flowered, Two-valved, Loosely Collecting The Flowers ; Valves Lanceolate, Acute, Ventricose, Loose, Large, Awnless ; Corolla Two-valved ; Lower Valve Harder Than The Calyx ; The Size Of The Calyx Roundish, Ventricose, ...

Average
Average, In Commerce, Signifies The Accidents And Misfortunes Which Happen To Ships And Their Cargoes, From The Time Of Their Loading And Sailing To Their Return And Unloading; And Is Divided Into Three Kinds : I The Simple Or Particular Aver Age, Which Consists In The Extraordinary Expenses Incurred For ...

Avicena
Avicena, Entr Sina, In Biography, Has Been Accounted The Prince Of Ara Bian Philosophers And Physicians. He Was Born At Assena, Near Bokhara,in 978; And Died At Hamadan In 1036, Being 58 Years Of Age. The First Years Of Avicena Were Em Ployed In The Study Of The Belles Lettres, ...

Axiom
Axiom, In Philosophy, Is Such A Plain,_ Self-evident, And Received Notion, That It Cannot He Made More Plain And Evident By Demonstration ; Because It Is Itself Better Known Than Any Thing That Can Be Brought To Prove It; As, That Nothing Can Act Where It Is Not ; That ...

Axis
Axis, In Geometry, The Straight Line In A Plane Figure About Which It Revolves, To Produce Or Generate A Solid : Thus, If A Semicircle Be Moved Round Its Diameter At Rest, It Will Generate A Sphere, The Axis Of Which Is That Diameter. Axis, In Astronomy. 1. Axis Of ...

Ayes
Ayes, Birds, The Name Of The Second Class Of Animals, According To The Linnman System. They Have Been Described As Animals, Having A Body Covered With Fea Thers And Down ; Jaws Protracted And Naked ; Two Wings, Formed For Flight; And Two Feet. They Are Aerial, Vocal, Swift, And ...

Azalea
Azalea, In Botany, Of The Pentan Dria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order, Bicornes ; Rhodod Endri A, Jussieu. Essential Character, Corolla Bell-shaped ; Stamina Inserted Into The Receptacle ; Capsule Five-celled. There Are Seven Species. A. Pontica Much Resembles The Rhododendron Ponticum, But It Has Five Stamens And Yellow ...

Bacon
Bacon (roexa), In Biography, An English Monk Of The Franciscan Order, Celebrated For His Genius And Learning, Was Born Near Tichester In Somersetshire, In The Year 1214. He Commenced His Studies At Oxford ; From Whence He Re Moved To The University Of Paris, Which At That Time Was Esteemed ...

Bacon_2
Bacon (faexcis) In Biography, Ba Ron Of Verulam, Viscount Of St. Albans, And Lord High Chancellor Of England Under King James I. He Was Born In 1560, Being Son Of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper Of The Great Seal In The Reign Of Queen Elizabeth, By Ann, Daugh. Ter Of ...

Bacon_3
Bacon, (dons) In Biography, A Cele Brated Sculptor, Descended From An An Cient Family In Somersetshire Was Born In Southwark, Nov. 24, 1740, Where His Father Thomas Bacon, A Cloth-worker, Re Sided. When Very Young, Mr. Bacon Dis Covered A Great Inclination For Drawing, Common To Children ; But, Not ...

Bail
Bail, In Law, The Setting At Liberty One Arrested Or Imprisoned, Upon An Action, Either Civil Or Criminal, Upon Sureties Taken For His Appearance, At A Day And Place Assigned ; And Is Either Common Or Special. Common Bail Is In Actions Of Small Pre Judice Or Slight Proof, In ...

Bailly Selvain
Bailly Selvain,) A Celebrated French Astronomer, Historiographer, And Politician, Was Born At Paris The 15th Of September, 1736, And Has Figured As One Of The Greatest Men Of The Age, Being A Member Of Several Academies, And An Ex Cellent Scholar And Writer. He Enjoyed For Several Years The Office ...

Bainbridge
Bainbridge, (jona) An Eminent Physician, Astronomer, And Mathemati Cian. He Was Born In 1582, At Ashby De La Zouch, Leicestershire. Lie Studied At Cambridge, Where, Having Taken His De Grees Of Bachelor And Master Of Arts, He Returned To Leicestershire, Kept A Gram Mar School, And At The Same Time ...

Baker
Baker, A Person Whose Occupation Or Business Is To Prepare Bread, Or To Reduce Meal Of Any Kind, Whether Simple Or Compound, Into Bread, Biscuit, &c. It Is Not Known When This Very Useful Business First Became A Particular Profession. Ba Kers Were A Distinct Body Of People In Rome, ...

Balistes
Balistes, In Natural History, A Genus Of Branchiostegous Fishes. The Generic Characters Are : Teeth Eight In Each Jaw, Of Which The Two Anterior Ones Are Longer, And Three Lateral Ones On Each Side More Obtuse ; Body Compressed ; Abdomen Carinated ; Skin Tough, Often Reticulated By Scale-like Divisions. ...

Bank
Bank Of England, Was Projected By Mr. W. Paterson, A Merchant, Who, In Conjunction With Others, Arranged The Establishment, For Which, With Some Diffi Culty, They Obtained The Sanction Of Par Liament. The Charter Was Executed July 27, 1694, And Was Granted For The Term Of Twelve Years, The Corporation ...

Bankrupt
Bankrupt, A Trader, Whom Misfor Tune Or Extravagance Has Induced To Com Mit An Act Of Bankruptcy. The Benefit Of The Bankrupt Laws Is Allowed To None But Actual Traders, Or Such As Buy And Sell, And Gain A Livelihood By So Doing. Requisites To Constitute A Trading, The Merchandising, ...

Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy, Proceedings Of, Under A Commission. The Lord Chancellor Is Empowered To Issue A Commission Of Bank Rupt, And Is Bound To Grant It As A Matter Of Right. By 5 Geo. It. C. 30, No Commis Sion Can Issue, Unless Upon The Petition Of A Single Creditor, To Whom ...

Banks
Banks, In Commerce, Are Of Three Kinds, Viz. Banks Of Deposit, Banks Of Discount, And Banks Of Circulation. Banks Of Deposit Have Been Instituted, 1st, With A View Of Afford Ing Security Against The Loss Of Money By Pillage Or Fire ; 2dly, For The Purpose Of Affbrding Facilities To ...

Bard
Bard, A Poet Among The Ancient Gauls And Britons, Who Celebrated The Praises Of Heroes, With A View To Inculcate Virtue, And Sometimes To Terminate A Difference Between Two Armies At The Point Of En Gagement. It Is Disputed In What The Bards Differed From The Druids ; Some Pretend ...

Bark
Bark, In Vegetable Anatomy, A Term Which Denotes The Exterior Part Of Vege Table Bodies; Which Is Separable From The Other Parts Of The Plant During The Sea Son Of Vegetation, But At Other Times Re Quires Maceration In Water, Or Boiling ; And When Detached By Any Of These ...

Barley
Barley, In Chemistry, Is The Seed Of The Hordeum Vulgare, Which Will Be De Scribed Hereafter. Great Crops Of It Are Reared Annually, Partly As An Article Of Food, And Partly As A Material From Which Malt Liquors And Ardent Spirits Are Drawn. This Species Of Corn Has Been Examined ...