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Barometer
Barometer, An Instrument For Mea Suring The Weight Or Pressure Of The At Mosphere ; And By That Means The Varia Tions In The State Of The Air, Foretelling The Changes In The Weather, And Measuring Heights Or Depths, &c. About The Begin Ning Of The 17th Century, When The ...

Barrow Isaac
Barrow (isaac,) A Very Eminent Mathematician And Divine, Was Born At London In October, 1630, Being The Son Of Thomas Barrow, Then A Linen-draper Of That City, But Descended From An Ancient Family In Suffolk. He Was At First Placed At The Charter-house School For Two Or Three Years, Where ...

Bartering
Bartering, In Commerce, The Ex Changing Of One Commodity For Another, Or The Trucking Wares For Wares, Among Merchants. Bartering Was The Original And Natural Way Of Commerce, There Be Ing No Buying Till Money Was Invented, Though, In Exchanging, Both Parties Are Buyers And Sellers. The Only Difficulty In ...

Barytes
Barytes Was Discovered By Scheele In 1774 ; And The First Account Of Its Pro Perties Published By Him In His Disserta Tion On Manganese. This Is A Very Heavy Mineral, Most Frequently Of A Flesh Colour, Of A Foliated Texture, And Brittle, Very Common In Britain And Most Other ...

Basalt
Basalt, In Mineralogy, Occurs Mas Sive, In Blunt And Rolled Pieces, And Some Times Vesicular: Its Common Colour Is Greyish Black, Of Various Degrees Of In Tensity ; From This It Passes Into Ash-grey ; Sometimes To Brown, And Even In Some Varieties To Raven Black. It Is Dull In ...

Basalts
Basalt's. According To Strabo And Agricola, The Antique Basaltes Is Found In The Same Pris Matical Form In Egypt, Which Distinguish_ Es Its Outline In Various Parts Of Europe. Farber, A Professor Of Natural History At Mietau, Supposes That Found In The Vi Centine Paduan And Veronese Districts Of Italy ...

Bass
Bass, In Music, That Part Of A Concert Which Is Most Heard, Which Consists Of The Gravest And Deepest Sounds, And Which Is Played On The Largest Pipes Or Strings Of A Common Instrument, As Of An Organ, Lute, &c. Or An Instrument Larger Than Or Dinary, For That Purpose, ...

Bassantin
Bassantin (jaillas,) A Scotch Astro Nomer, Of The 16th Century, Born In The Reign Of James Iv. Of Scotland. He Was A Son Of The Laird Of Bassantin, In The Merse. After Finishing His Education At The University Of Glasgow, He Travelled Through Germany And Italy, And Then Set Tled ...

Bauhinia
Bauhinia, In Botany, So Called In Ho Nour Of The Two Famous Botanists, John And Caspar Baultin, A Genus Of The De Candria Monogynia Class And Order. Na Tural Order Of Lomentacew ; Legumino Sx, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five Cleft, Deciduous ; Petals Expanding, Oblong, With Claws, The ...

Bayer
Bayer, (jmix) In Biography, A Ger Man Lawyer And Astronomer Of The Latter Part Of The 16th And Beginning Of The 17th Century, But In What Particular Y Ear Or Place He Was Born Is Not Certainly Known: However, His Name Will Be Ever Memora Ble In The Annals Of ...

Bears Acanthus
Acanthus, Bear's Baszen, Or Bnxrk-thiskz, In Botany, A Genus Of The Didyn:unia Angiospermia Class, And Be Longing To The Natural Order Of Personatz. There Are Ten Species : 1. The Smooth Acanthus, With White Flowers, Proceeding From About The Middle To The Top Of The Stalk, Is The Species Used ...

Beauty
Beauty, A General Term For Whatever Excites In Us Pleasing Sensations, Or An Idea Of Approbation. Hence The Notion Annexed To Beauty May Be Distinguished Into Ideas And Sen Sations ; The Former Of Which Occupy The Mind ; The Latter Affect The Heart ; Thus, An Object May Please ...

Beer
Beer Pump. The Plate Explains The Construction Of A Set Of Beer Pumps, As Made By Mr. Thomas Llowntree, Engine Maker, Blackfriars Road: The Pumps Are Not Of The Common Construction, But Similar To That Made Use Ofin His Extinguishing En Gine : They Are Double, And Throw Out The ...

Bees
Bees, Management Of. It Is Agreed By The Most Judicious Observers, That The Apiary, Or Place Were Bees Are Kept, Should Face The South, And Be Situated In A Place Neither Too Hot Nor Too Much Ex Posed To The Cold ; That It Be Near The Mansion-house, On Account ...

Bell
Bell, A Well Known Machine, Ranked By Musicians Among The Musical Instru Ments Of Percussion. The Metal Is Usuallycomposed Of Three Parts Of Copper And One Part Of Tin. Its Colour Is Greyish-white ; It Is Very Hard, Sonorous, And Elastic. The Greater Part Of The Tin May Be Separated ...

Bell_2
Bell In Parliament, A Paper Containing Propositions Offered To The Houses To Be Passed By Them, And Then Presented To The King To Pass Into A Law. To Bring A Bill Into The House, If The Relief Sought By It Is Of A Private Nature, It Is First Neces Sary ...

Bellows
Bellows, A Machine So Contrived As To Agitate The Air With Great Briskness, Ex Piring And Inspiring It By Turns, And That Only From Enlarging And Contracting Its Capacity. This Machine Is Used In Chambers And Kitchens, In Forges, Furnaces, And Feund Ries, To Blow Up The Fire ; It ...

Belts
Belts, In Astronomy, Zones Or Girdles Surrounding The Planet Jupiter, Brighter Than The Rest Of His Body, And Terminated By Parallel Lines. They Are Observed, However, To Be Sometimes Broader And Sometimes Narrower, And Not Always Oc Cupying Exactly The Same Part Of The Disc. Jupiter's Belts Were First Observed ...

Benefit
Benefit Of Clergy. By Stat. 3 Ed. 1. C. 3, It Is Enacted, That For The Scarcity Of Clergy In The Realm Of England, To Be Dis Posed Of In Religious Houses, Or For Deacons, And Clerks Of Parishes, There Should Be A Prerogative Allowed To The Clergy, That If ...

Benzoin
Benzoin, In Chemistry, A Gum Called Gum Benjamin ; Is Brought From The East Indies In Brittle Masses Of Unequal Degrees Of Purity, And Varying In Colour From Yel Low To White. It Has But Little Taste ; But If Previously Dissolved, It Is Rather Pun Gent And Aromatic. Its ...

Berbais
Berbais, Barberry, In Botany, A Ge Nus Of The Ilexandria Monogynia Class And Order. Essential Character : Calyx Six-leaved ; Petals Six, With Two Glands At The Style None; Berry Two-seed Ed. There Are Four Species, Of Which B. Vulgaris Is A Shrub Rising To The Height Of Eight Or ...

Berkeley
Berkeley (gaonsa) The Virtuous And Learned Bishop Of Cloyne In Ireland, Was Born In That Kingdom., At Kilcrin, The 12th Of March, 1684. After Receiving The First Part Of His Education At Kilkenny School, He Was Admitted A Pensioner Of Trinity College, Dublin, At 15 Years Old ; And Chosen ...

Bernard
Bernard, (dr. Edwarc) A Learned Astronomer, Critic, And Linguist, Was Born At Perry St. Paul, Near L'owcester, The 2d Of May, 1638, And Educated At Merchant Taylor's School, And At St. John's College, Oxford. Having Laid In A Good Fund Of Classical Learning At School, In The Greek And Latin ...

Bernard Nieuwentyt
Nieuwentyt, (bernard), In Bio Graphy, A Celebrated Dutch Philosopher And Mathematician, In The Seventeenth And Early Part Of The Eighteenth Century, Was The Son Of A Minister Of Westgraafdyk, In North Holland, Where He Was Born In The Year 1654. He Afforded Early Indications Of A Good Genius, And A ...

Bernoulli
Bernoulli (jamcs,) A Celebrated Mathematician, Born At Basil, The 27th Of December, 1654. Having Taken His De Grees In That University, He Applied Him Self To Divinity, At The Entreaties Of His Fa Ther, But Against His Own Inclination, Which Led Him To Astronomy And Mathe Matics. He Gave Very ...

Bernoulli Daniel
Bernoulli (daniel), A Celebrated Physician And Philosopher, And Son Ofjohn Bernoulli Last Mentioned, Was Born At Groningen, February The 9th, 1700, Where His Father Was Then Professor Of Mathe Matics. He Was Intended By His Father For Trade, But His Genius Led Him To Other Pursuits. He Passed Some Time ...

Beryll
Beryll, In Mineralogy, A Species Of The Flint Genus, Divided By Werner Into Two Sub-species. 1st. Precious Beryll, Which Is Green, Passing On The One Side In To Blue, And On The Other Into Yellow ; It Is Commonly Mountain Green And Sela, Don ; From The Former It Passes ...

Beta
Beta, In Botany, A Genus Of The Peti Tandria Digynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Holoracew ; Atriplices, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five-leaved ; Corolla None ; Seed Kidney-form, Within The Substance Of The Base Of The Calyx. There Are Four Species, Of Which B. Vid. Garis, Red ...

Betula
Betula, The Birch-tree, In Botany, A Genus Of Plants Of The Monoecia Tetran Idria Class. The Male Flower Is Amentace Ous, Formed Of A Number Of Monopetalous Floscules, Each Of Which Is Divided Into Four Parts. In The Female Flower The Ca Lyx Is Lightly Divided Intg Three Segments: The ...

Bible
Bible, The Brok, A Name Given By Chris Tians, By Way Of Eminence, To A Collection Of The Sacred Writings. This Collection Of The Sacred Writings, Containing Those Of The Old And New Tes. 'lament, Is Justlylooked Upon As The Foun Dation Of The Jewish, As Well As The Chris ...

Bible_2
Bible, Arabic. The Arabic Versions Of The Bible Are Of Two Sorts, The One Done By Christians, The Other By Jews. There Are Also Several Arabic Versions Of Parti Cular Hooks Of Scripture, As A Translation Of The Pentateuch From The Syriac, And Another Of The Same From The Septuagint, ...

Bibles
Bibles, English. The First English Bi Ble We Read Of Was That Translated By J. Wickliffe, About The Year 1360 ; But Ne Ver Printed, Though There Are Ms. Copies Of It In Several Of The Public Libraries. J. De Trevisa, Who Died About The Year 1398, Is Also Said ...

Bile
Bile Is A Liquid Of A Yellowish-green Colour, An Unctuous Feel, Bitter Taste, And Peculiar Smell, Which Is Secreted By The Liver; And In Most Animals Considerable Quantities Of It Are Usually Found Collected In The Gall Bladder. Great Attention Has Been Paid To This Liquid By Physicians ; Because ...

Billiards
Billiards, An Ingenious Kind Of Game, Played On A Rectangular Table, With Little Ivory Balls, Which Are Driven Into Hazards Or Holes, According To Certain Rules Of The Game. The Table On Which The Game Is Played Is Generally About Twelve Feet Long And Six Feet Wide, Or Ra Ther ...

Binomial
Binomial, In Algebra, A Root Consist Ing Of Two Members, Connected By The Sign + Or . Thus A + B And 8-3 Are Binomials; Consisting Of The Sums And Differences Of These Quantities. The Powers Of Any Binomial Are Found By A Continual Multiplication Of It By It Self. ...

Biography
Biography, A Very Entertaining And Instructive Species Of History, Containing The Life Of Some Remarkable Person Or Persons. Lord Bacon Regrets, That The Lives Of Eminent Men Are Not More Frequently Written : For, Adds He, Though Kings, Princes, And Great Personages, Be Few ; Yet There Are Many Other ...

Bird
Bird Lime. The Vegetable Principle, To Which Is Given The Name Of Birdlime, Was First Examined By Vauquelin, Who Found It Possessed Of Properties Different From Every Other. It Was Found Collected On The Epidermis Of A Plant Brought To Eu Rope By Michaud, And Called Rohinia Vis Cose, Constituting ...

Bird
Bird, In Zoology. See Avas. Than-catching, The Art Of Taking Birds Or Wild Fbwl, Whether For Food, For The Pleasure Of Their Song, Or For Their De Struction, As Pernicious To The Husband Man, &c. The Methods Are, By Bird-lime, Nets, Decoys, &c. In The Suburbs Of Lon Don Are ...

Birds
Birds' Nests, In Cookery, The Nest Of A Small Indian Swallow, Very Delicately Tasted, And Fequently Mixed Among Soups. On The Sea Coasts Of China, At Cer Tain Seasons Of The Year, There Are Seen Vast Numbers Of These Birds ; They Leave The Inland Country At Their Breeding Time, ...

Biscuit
Biscuit, Sea, Is A Sort Of Bread Much Dried, To Make It Keep For The Service Of The Sea. It Was Formerly Baked Twice, Or Oftener, And Prepared Six Months Before The Embarkation. It Will Keep Good A Whole Year. The Process Of Biscuit-baking For The British Navy Is As ...

Bishop
Bishop, A Prelate, Or Person Conse Crated For The Spiritual Government Of A Diocese. Whether The Distinction Of Bishops From Mere Priests Or Presbyters Was Settled In The Apostolical Age, Or Introduced Since, Is Much Controverted. It Is Certain, That In The New Testament The Names Of Bi Shops And ...

Bismuth
Bismuth, One Of The Brittle And Easi Ly Fused Metals. The Ores Of This Metal Are Very Few In Number, And Occur Chief Ly In Germany. This, In Some Measure, Accounts For The Ignorante Of The Greeks And Arabians, Neither Of Whom Appear To Have Been Acquainted With Bismuth. The ...

Bitumen
Bitumen, In Chemistry. The Term Bitumen Has Often Been Applied By Che Mists To All The Inflammable Substances That Occur In The Earth ; But This Use Of The Word Is Now So Far Limited, That Sul Phur And Millite Are Most Commonly Ex Cluded. It Would Be Proper To ...

Bivalve Shells
Bivalve Shells. Calceola. A Regular Bivalve Shell, With Unequal Valves, The Largest Being In The Form Of A Half Sandal, And The Smallest Flat, Semiorbicular, And Resembling -an Operculuna ; The Hinge With From One To Three Small Teeth This Shell Is Only Known As A Fossil, And Is Considered ...

Black
Black, Something Opake And Porous, That Imbibes The Greatest Part Of The Light That Falls On It, Reflects Little Or None, And Therefore Exhibits No Colour. Bodies Of A Black Colour Are Found More Inflamma Ble, Because The Rays Of Light Falling On Them Are Not Reflected Outwards, But En ...

Blatta
Blatta, The Cock-roach, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Hemiptera. The 4eneric Characters Are, Head Inflected ; Antennx Setaceous ; Wings Flat, Subcoriaceous ; Thorax Flattish, Orbicular, Margined ; Feet Formed For Running ; Hornlets Two Over The Tail. The Insects Of This Genus, And Their ...

Bleaching
Bleaching, In The Arts, Is A Process That Consists Of A Series Of Operations, Partly Chemical And Partly Mechanical, To Which Vegetable And Animal Fibres Are Sub Jected, For The Purpose Of Discharging Their Natural Colour, And Thus Rendering Them White, Either Before Or After They Have Been Manufactured. Now ...

Blennius
Blennius, Blenny, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Jugulares. The Generic Characters Are, Head Sloping ; Body Lengthened, Sub-compressed, Lubri Cons ; Gill Membrane Six-rayed ; Ventral Fins Two, Three Or Four-rayed, Unarmed ; Anal Fin Distinct. There Are Two Divi Sions; Viz. A. Head Crested ...

Blight
Blight, In Agriculture, A General Name For Various Distempers Incident To Corn And Fruit Trees. It Affects Them Va Riously, The Whole Plant Sometimes Pe Rishing By It, And Sometimes Only The Leaves And Blossoms, Which Will Be Scorch Ed And Shrivelled Up, The Rest Remaining Green And Flourishing. Some ...

Blindness
Blindness, A Total Privation Of Sight, Arising From An Obstruction Of The Func Tions Of The Organs Of Sight, Or From An Entire Deprivation Of Them. This Defect May Arise From A Variety Of Causes, Existing Either In The Organ Of Sight, Or In The Circumstances Necessary To Produce Vision. ...

Blocks
Blocks, On Ship-board, Is The Usual Name For What We Call Pullies At Land. They Are Thick Pieces Of Wood, Some With Three, Four, Or Five Shivers In Them, Through Which All The Running Ropes Run. Blocks, Whether Single Or Double, Are Distinguished And Called By The Names Of The ...

Blood
Blood Is A Well Known Fluid, Which Circulates In The Veins And Arteries Of The More Perfect Animals. It Is Of A Red Co Lour, Has A Considerable Degree Of Consis Tency, And An Unctuous Feel, As If It Con Tained A Quantity Of Soap. Its Taste Is Slightly Saline, ...

Blueness
Blueness, That Quality Which Deno Minates A Body Blue, Depending On Such A Size And Texture Of The Parts That Com Pose The Surface Of A Body, As Dispose Them To Reflect The Blue Or Azure Rays Of Light, And Those Only, To The Eye. With Respect To The Blueness ...

Boarding
Boarding A Ship, Is Entering An Ene My's Ship In A Fight. In Boarding A Ship, It Is Best To Bear Up Directly With Him, And To Cause All Your Ports To Leeward To Be Beat Open ; Then Bring As Many Guns From Your Weather Side, As You Have ...

Boat
Boat, Is A Small Open Vessel Worked By Oars Or Sails. The Construction And Names Ofboats Are Different, According To The Purposes For Which They Are Intend Ed. The Boats Or Wherries Plying On The Thames About London Are Either Scull Ers, Wrought By A Single Person, With Oars ; ...

Body
Body, In Geometry,. A Figure Extend Ed In All Directions, Or What Is Usually_ Said To Consist Of Length, Breadth, And Thickness It Is Usually Called A Solid. A Solid Or Body Is Conceived To Be Formed By The Motion Of A Surface ; As A Surface Is By The ...

Boiling
Boiling. When All Other Circum Stances Are The Same, The Evaporation Of Liquids Increases With Their Temperature : And After They Are Heated To A Certain Tem Perature, They Assume The Form Of Elastic Fluids With Great Rapidity. If The Heat Be Applied To The Bottom Of The Vessel Con ...

Bolts
Bolts In A Ship, Are Iron Pins, Of Which There Are Several Sorts, According To Their Different Make And Uses. Such Are, Drive Bolts, Used To Drive Out Others ; Ray Bolts, With Jags Or Barbs On Each Side To Keep Them From Flying Out Of Their Holes ; Clench ...

Bomb
Bomb, In Artillery, A Shell Or Hollow Ball Of Cast Iron, Having A Large Vent, By Which It Is Filled With Gunpowder, And Which Is Fitted With A Fuze Or Hollow Plug, To Give Fire By When Thrown Out Of A Mor Tar, &c.: About The Time When The Shell ...

Bombylius
Bombylius, In Natural History, A Ge Nus Of Insects Of The Order Diptera : The Generic Character Is, Mouth Furnished With A Very Long Porrected, Setaceous, Bivalve Trunk, Composed Of Horizontal Valves, Including Setaceons Piercers. The Insects Of This Germs Have Somewhat The Appearance Of The Smaller Kinds Of Hum ...

Bond
Bond, An Obligatory Instrument, Or Deed, In Writing, Whereby One Binds Him Self To Another To Pay A Certain Sum Of Money, Or Perform Some Certain Acts ; As That The Obligorshall Make A Release, Ex Ecute A Sufficient Conveyance Of His Estate, Save The Obligee Harmless, Perform The Covenants ...

Bone
Bone. By Bones Are Meant Those Hard, Solid, Well-known Substances, To Which The Firmness, Shape, And Strength Of Ani Mal Bodies Are Owing ; Which, In The Lar Ger Animals, Form, As It Were, The Ground Work Upon Which All The Rest Is Built. In Man, In Quadrupeds, And Many ...

Bones Of Toe Upper
Bones Of Toe 'upper Titnemrty. We May Assert As A General Observa Tion, That The Founcomponent Parts Of The Upper Extremities, Viz. The Shoulder, Arm, Fore-arm, And Hand, Can Be Clearly Shewn To Exist In The Anterior Extremities Of All Mammalia, However Dissimilar They May Appear To Each Other On ...

Bones Of Tue Lower
Bones Of Tue Lower Extremity. The Length Of The Femur Depends On That Of The Metatarsus; And It Bears An Inverse Ratio To The Length Of That Part. Hence It Is Very Short In The Horse, Cow, &c. Where The Same Mistakes Are Commonly Committed In Naming The Parts As ...

Book
Book, Liber, The Composition Of A Man Of Wit And Learning, Designed To Commu Nicate Somewhat He Has Invented, Experi Enced, Or Collected, To The Public, And Thence To Posterity ; Being Withal Of A Com Petent Length To Make A Volume. In This Sense, A Book Is Distinguished From ...

Books
Books, Form Of. The First Books Were In The Form Of Blocks And Tables : But As Flexible Matter Came To Be Wrote On, They Found It More Convenient To Make Their Books In The Form Of Rolls: These Were Composed Of Several Sheets Fastened To Each Other, And Rolled ...

Bookseller
Bookseller, One Who Trades In Books, Whether He Prints Them Himself, Or Gives Them To Be Printed By Others. Booksellers Are In Many Places Ranked Among The Members Of Universities, And Entitled To The Privileges Of Students, As At Tubingen, Saltsburg, And Paris, Where They Have Always Been Distinguished From ...

Borax
Borax, In Chemistry, Is A Name Given To A Species Of White Salt Much Used By Various Artists. Its Use In Soldering Me Tals Appears To Have Been Known To Agri Cola. Borax Is Found Mixed With Other Substances In Thibet. It Seems To Exist In Some Lands Adjacent To ...

Boron I A
Boron I A, In Botany, A Genus Of The Oetanctria Monogynia Class And Order. Cal) X Four-parted ; Petals Four ; Anthers: Pedicelled Below The Summits Of The Fila Ments; Style, From The Top Of The Germ, Very Short ; Stigma Capitate ; Capsule Fbur-united ; Seeds Coated. There Are ...

Borrowing
Borrowing, When Money, .corn, Grain, Gold, Or Other Commodity, Merely Esteemed According To Its Price, Is Bor Rowed, It Is Repaid By Returning An Equal Quantity Of The Same Thing, Or An Equal Value In Money. 11 Money Is Borrowed, It Is Always Understood That Interest Is Payable, And It ...

Botany
Botany. According To The Linnsean System, Plants Take Their Denominations From The Sex Of Their Flowers, In The Following Manner :-1. Hermaphrodite Plants, Are Such As Upon The Same Root Bear Flowers That Are All Hermaphrodite, As In Most Ge Nera. 2. Androgynous, Male And Female, Such As Upon The ...