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Bottle
Bottle, A Small Vessel Proper For Holding Liquors. We Say A Glass Bottle, A Stone Bottle, A Leathern Bottle, A Wooden Bottle, A Sucking Bottle. Of Glass Bottles No Mention Occurs Before The 15th Centu Ry: For The 'amphorae Vitrem" Of Petro Nius, To The Necks Of Which Were Affixed ...

Bougufr
Bouguf.r (persa), In Biography, A Celebrated French Mathematician, Born At Croisci, In Lower Bretagne, In Febru Ary, 1698. His Father, John, Was Profes Sor Of Hydrography, And Author Of " A Complete Treatise Onnavigation." Young Bouguer Learnt Mathematics Of His Fa Ther, From The Time He Was Able To Speak, ...

Bounty
Bounty, A Bounty In Political Econo My, Is A Sum Of Money Paid By The State For The Raising Or The Exporting Of Some Species Of Rude Produce Or Manufacture. In This Country Every Person Who Raises A Certain Quantity Of Flax Is Entitled To A Bounty ; And When ...

Boyle
Boyle (ronelul), One Of The Greatest Philosophers, As Well As Best Men, That Any Country Has Ever Produced, Was The Seventh Son, And The Fourteenth Child, Of Richard Earl Of Cork, And Born At Lis More, In The Province Of Munster, In Ire Land, The 25th Of January, 1626-7 ; ...

Brachmans
Brachmans, A Sect Of Indian Philo Sophers, Known To The Ancient Greeks By The Name Of Gymnosophists. The Ancient Brachmans Lived Upon Herbs And Pulse, And Abstained From Every Thing That Had Life In It. They Lived In Solitude, Without Matrimony, And Without Property: And They Wished Ardentlyfor Death, Consider ...

Bradley
Bradley (du. James,) A Celebrated English Astronomer, The Third Son Of Wil Liam Bradley, Was Born At Sherborne, In Gloucestershire, In The Year 1692. He Went To Oxford, And Was Admitted A Com Moner Of Baliol College, March 15, 1710, Where He Took The Degree Of Bachelor The 14th Of ...

Bradypus
Bradypus, The Sloth, In Natural Histo Ry, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Bruta. Generic Character ; Cutting Teeth, None In Either Jaw ; Canine Teeth Obtuse, Single, Longer Than The Grinders, Placed Opposite ; Grinders Five On Each Side, Ob Tuse; Fore Legs Much Longer Than The Hind ...

Brahe
Brahe (trcno), A Celebrated Astro Nomer, Descended From A Noble Family, Originally Of Sweden, Hut Settled In Den Mark, Was Born The 14th Of December, 1546, At Knudstrop, In The County Of Schonen, Near Helsinbourg. He Was Taught Latin When Seven Years Old, And Studied Five Years Under Private Tutors. ...

Brain
Brain, In Anatomy, That Soft White Mass Inclosed In The Cranium Or Skull, In Which All The Organs Of Sense Terminate, And In Which The Soul Was Formerly Sup Posed Principally To Reside. See Ana. Tont. The Brain And Nerves Are The Instru Ments Of Sensation, And Even Of Motion ...

Brandy
Brandy. A Spirituous Liquor, Pro Duced By The Distillation Of Wines Of All Ki Nds, And, Properly Speaking, By No Other Fermented Liquor; Though The Purely Spi Rituous Part Of All Fermented Vinous Quors Procured By Distillation Is Essen Tially The Same, And Therefore An Infinite Variety Of Imitations Of ...

Brass
Brass, In The Arts, A Metal Much Used In Various Articles Of Manufacture ; It Is Compounded Of Zinc And Copper, In The Proportion Of One Part Of Zinc To Three Of Copper. It Is Of A Fine Yellow Colour, And More Fusible Than Copper, And Less Liable To Tarnish ...

Brazil
Brazil, Wood, In The Arts. The Tree Which Bears This Wood Is The Cxsalpina Crista. The Wood Is Very Hard, Takes A High Polish, And Is So Heavy As To Sink In Water. When Chewed It Gives A Sweetish Taste. It Much Resembles In Appearance Red Minders Wood, But Differs ...

Bread
Bread Is A Light Porous Spongy Sub Stance, Prepared By Fermentation And Baking From The Flour Of Certain Farina Ceous Seeds, Especially Wheat, And Is The Principal Sustenance Of Man In The Tem Perate Regions Of The Northern Hemi Sphere. When Flour Is Kneaded With Water, It Forms A Tough ...

Brewing
Brewing, The Art Of Brewing, Or Of Preparing A Vinous Fermented Liquor From The Farinaceous Seeds, Is Of Very High An Tiquity. The Ancient Egyptians, From The Soil And Climate Of Their Country Not Being Favourable To The Culture Of The Vine, Were Induced To Seek A Substitute In Barley, ...

Bribery
Bribery, In Common Law, Is When A Person, Occupying A Judicial Place, Takes Any Fee, Gift, Reward, Or Brokage, For Do Ing His Office, Or By Colour Of His Office, Except Of The King Only. In A Larger Sense, Bribery Denotes The Receiving Or Offering Of Any Undue Reward, To ...

Brick
Brick, A Well Known Substance, Four Inches Broad, And Eight Or Nine Long, Made By Means Of A Wooden Mould, And Then Baked Or Burnt In A Kiln, To Serve The Pur Poses Of Building. Bricks Are Of Great Antiquity, As Ap Pears By The Sacred Writings, The Tower And ...

Bridge
Bridge, A Work Of Masonry Or Timber, Consisting Of One Or More Arches, Built Over A River, Canal, Or The Like, Fur The Con Venience Of Crossing The Same. Bridges Are A Sort Of Edifices Very Difficult To Execute, On Account Of The Inconvenience Of Laying Foundations And Walling Under ...

Briggs
Briggs (hstinir), In Biography, A Very Considerable Mathematician, Born Near Halifax, Yorkshire, In 1556 ; And In 1579, Having Attained A Good Share Of Gramma Tical Knowledge, He Went To St. John's College, Cambridge, Where He Took His Degrees In Regular Order, And In 1588 Was Chosen Fellow Of His ...

Brokers
Brokers, Insurance Or Policy, Are Agents Who Transact The Business Of Insurance, Between The Merchant Or Party Insured And The Underwriters Or Insurers. These Insurance Brokers, From The Nature Of Their Employment, Ought To Be, And In Deed Generally Are, Persons Of Respecta Bility And Honour, In Whom Unlimited Confidence ...

Bromelia
Bromelia, In Botany, So Named In Memory Of Olaus Brothel, A Swede, A Genus Of The Hexandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Coronarix. Bromelix, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Trifid, Superior; Petals Three, And A Nectareous Scale At The Base Of Each ; Ber Ry Three-celled. There Are ...

Bubble
Bubble, In Philosophy, Small Drops Or Vesicles Of Any Fluid Filled With Air, And Either Formed On Its Surface, By An Addi Tion Of More Of The Fluid, As In Raining, &c. Or In Its Substance, By An Intestine Motion Of Its Component Particles. Bubbles Are Dilatable Or Compressible, I. ...

Budding
Budding, In Gardening, Is A Method Of Propagation, Practised For Various Sorts Of Trees, But Particularly Those Of The Fruit Kinds. It Is The Only Method Which Can Be Had Recourse To,with Certainty, For Continuing And Multiplying The Approved Varieties Of Many Sorts Of Fruit And Other Trees ; As, ...

Building
Building Is Also Used For Constructing And Raising An Edifice; In Which Sense It Comprehends As Well The Expenses, As The Invention And Execution Of The Design. There Are Three Things Chiefly To Be Con Sidered In The Art Of Building, Viz. Um Venience, Firmness, And Delight. To Ac Complish ...

Bulimy
Bulimy, A Disease In Which The Patient Is Affected With Insatiable And Perpe Tual Desire Of Eating ; And Unless He Is Indulged, He Often Falls Into Fainting Fits. It Is Also Called Fames Cantina, Canine Ap Petite. In The Third Volume Of The "memoirs Of The Medical Society Of ...

Bullet
Bullet, An Iron Or Leaden Ball, Or Shot, Wherewith Fire-arms Are Loaded. Bullets Are Of Various Kinds ; Viz. Red-hot Bullets, Made Hot In A Forge, Intended To Set Fire To Places Where Combustible Mat Ters Are Found. Hollow Bullets, Or Shells Made Cylindrical, With An Aperture And Fuse At ...

Bullion
Bullion, Uncoined Gold Or Silver In The Mass. Those Metals Are Called So, Either When Smelted From The Native Ore, And Not Per Fectly Refined ; Or When They Are Perfect Ly Refined, But Melted Down In Bars Or Ingots, Or In An .unwrought Body, Of Any Degree Of Fineness ...

Burglary
Burglary, In Law, Or Nocturnal House-breaking, An Unlawful Entering Into Another Man's Dwelling, Wherein Some Person Is, Or Into A Church, In The Night Time, In Order To Commit Some Felony, Or To Kill Some Person, Or To Steal Something Thence, Or Do Some Other Felonious Act, Whether The Same ...

Burial
Burial, The Interment Of A Deceased Person. The Rites Of Burial Make The Greatest And Most Necessary Care, Being Looked Upon In All Countries, And At All Times, As A Debt So Sacred, That Such As Neglected To Discharge It Were Thought Accursed: Hence The Romans Called Them Junta, And ...

Burn
Burn, In Medicine And Surgery, An In Jury Received In Any Part Of The Body, In Consequence Of The Application Of Too Great Heat. See Surgery. Burning-glass, A Convex Or Concave Glass, Commonly Spherical, Which, Being Exposed Directly To The Sun, Collects All The Rays Falling Thereon Into A Very ...

Button
Button, An Article Of Dress, Serving To Fasten Clothes Tight About The Body, Made Of Metal, Silk, Mohair. &c. In Val. Rious Forms. Metal Buttons Are Either Cast In Moulds, In The Manner Of Other Small Works, Or Made Of Thin Plates Of Gold, Silver, Or Brass, Whose Structure Is ...

C Tory
Tory, &c. The Reduction Of An Ore Requires Fre Quently Previous Roasting, To Expel The Sulphur And Other Volatile Ingredients ; Or This May Be Effected By Mixing The Powdered Ore With Nitre, And Projecting The Mixture Into A Crucible. The Sul Phate Of Potash, Thus Formed, May Be Washed ...

Cabinet
Cabinet, The Most Retired Place In The Finest Part Of A Building, Set Apart For Writing, Studying, Or Preserving Any Thing That Is Precious. A Complete Apartment Consists Of A Ball, Anti-chamber, Chamber, And Cabinet, With A Gallery On One Side. Hence We Say, A Cabinet Of Paintings, Cu Riosities, ...

Cable
Cable, A Thick, Large, Strong Rope, Commonly Of Hemp, Which Serves To Keep A Ship At Anchor. There Is No Merchant Ship, However Weak, But Has, At Least Three Cables ; Namely, The Chief Cable, Or Cable Of The Sheet-anchor, A Common Cable, And A Smaller One. Cable Is Also ...

Cacalia
Cacalia, In Botany, A Genus Of The Syngenesia Polygamia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Composite: Corymbiferae, Jitssieu. Essential Charac Ter : Calyx Cylindric, Oblong, At The Base Only Subcalycled ; Down Capillary ; Recep Tacle Naked. There Are Thirty-three Species, Of Which We Shall Only Give A Short Description ...

Cactus
Cactus, In Botany, A Genus Of The Icosandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Succulentx. Cacti, Jus Sieu. Essential Character : Calyx One Leafed, Superior, Imbricate ; Corolla Mani Fold ; Berry One-celled, Many-seeded. There Are Twenty-seven Species. This Genus Consists Of Succulent Plants, Per. Manent In Duration, Singular ...

Caille
Caille (nicuosas Lewis De La,) In Biography, An Eminent French Mathe Matician And Astronomer, Was Born In The Diocese Of Rheims In 1713. His Father Having Quitted The Army, In Which He Had Served, Amused Himself In His Retirement With Studying Mathematics And Mecha Nics, In Which He Proved The ...

Caisson
Caisson Is Also Used For A Wooden Frame, Or Chest, Used In Laying The Foun Dations Of The Piers Of A Bridge. The Practice In Building In Caissons Is A Method Sometimes Adopted In Laying The Foundation Of Bridges In Very Deep Or Rapid Rivers. There Are Large Hollow Vessels, ...

Calculi
Calculi, Biliary, In Chemistry, Are Small Stones Found In The Gall-bladder, And Probably Formed By The Changes Produ Ced On The Bile While It Remains In That Organ. These Are Not Uniform In Their Appearance, But Vary In Colour, Texture, And Hardness. The Most Common Are Of A Lamellated Structure, ...

Calculus
Calculus, Diferendalis,is A Method Of Differencing Quantities, That Is, Of Finding An Infinitely Small Quantity, Which, Being Taken An Infinitive Number Of Times, Shall Be Equal To A Given Quantity. An Infinite Ly Small Quantity, Or Infinitesimal, Is A Portion Of A Quantity Less Than Any Assign Able One ; ...

Calendar
Calendar, Gregorian, That Which, By Means Of Epacts, Rightly Disposed Through The Several Months, Determines The New And Full Moons, And The Time Of Easter, With The Moveable Feasts Depending Thereon, In The.gregorian Year. Therefore, The Gregorian Calendar Differs From The Julian, Both In The Form Of The Year, And ...

Calico
Calico, A Species Of Cloth Of Cotton Thread, Manufactured Formerly In The East Indies ; But Now We Have In This Country Established Manufactories Which Equal Those In The East. It Is Said That In This Business, And In The Printing Of Calicoes, There Are 150,000 Persons Em Ployed. Cotton, ...

Calk
Calk, A Genus Of Minerals, Which Is Divided Into Twenty Species. 1. Rock Milk, Denominated, By Werner, Berg Milch. 2. Chalk, Denominated Kreide, Or Creta Alba : External Characters : Co Lour White: Occurs Massive Disseminated, And As A Crust Covering Flint ; Fragments Indeterminately Angular, Blunt Edged ; Opaque; ...

Caloric
Caloric, In Chemistry, A Word Used To Signify That Substance Or Property, By Which The Phenomena Of Heat Are Pro Duced. Concerning The Nature Of Caloric There Are Two Opinions, Which Have Divid Ed Philosophers Ever Since They Turned Their Attention To The Subject. Some Sup. Pose, That Caloric, Like ...

Calvinists
Calvinists, A Sect Of Christians Who Derive Their Name From John Calvin, An Eminent Reformer, Who Was Born At No Gen In Picardy, In The Year 1509. He First Studied The Civil Laws, And Was Afterwards Made Professor Of Divinity At Geneva, In The Year 1536. The Name Of Calvinists ...

Camelus
' Camelus, Camel, In Natural History, A Genus Of The Mammalia, Of The Order Pe Cora. The Generic Character : Horns None ; Six Front Teeth In The Lower Jaw, Thin And Broad ; The Canine Teeth Distant, Three In The Upper Jaw, And In The Lower Two ; Upper ...

Camphor
Camphor Is A Principle Of Vegeta Bles, Which, In Many Of Its Properties, Re Sembles The Volatile Oils. Like Them, It Is Odorous, Pungent, Volatile, Inflamma• Ble, Sparingly Soluble In Water, And Abun Dantly Soluble In Alcohol. It Differs From Them Principally In Its Concrete Form, In Its Peculiar Odour, ...

Canal
Canal, An Aqueduct Made For The Purposcs'of Inland Navigation. This Great Improvement In The Conveyance Of Com Modities Has Arrived At A High Degree Of Perfection, And Enables Us To Transport Them Even Overmoxntains,whereitwould Appear Impossible To Preserve A Commu Nication, Or Rather A Continuity Of Water Carriage With The ...

Cancer
Cancer, Tropic Of, In Astronomy, A Lesser Circle Of The Sphere, Parallel To The Equator, And Passing Through The Begin Ning Of The Sign Cancer. Cesczn, The Crab, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Aptera. The Generic Charactet : Eight Legs In Ge Neral, Sometimes Six ...

Candle
Candle, A Small Taper Of Tallow, Wax, Or Spermaceti ; The Wick Of Which Is Corn Monly Of Several Threads Of Cotton, Spun And Twisted Together. There Are Two Sorts Of Tallow-candles ; The One Dipped, The Other Moulded : The Former Are The Common Candles. Tallow Candles Should Be ...

Canis
Canis, The Dog, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Fem. Generic Character : Six Upper Foreteeth ; Lateral Ones Longer, Distant ; The Inter Mediate Ones Lobate ; In The Lower Jaw Six, Lateral Ones Lobated ; Tusks Solitary And Incurvated ; Grinders Six Or Seven, ...

Cannon
Cannon, In The Military Art, An En Gine Or Fire-arm For Throwing Iron, Lead, Or Stone Bullets, By Force Of Gun-powder. Cannons At First Were Called Bombardz, From The Noise They Made ; They Had Like Wise The Name Of Culverin, Basilisk, &c. From The Beasts That Were Represented Upon ...

Canton
Canton, Vans), In Biography, An Ingenious Natural Philosopher, Was Born At Stroud, In Gloucestershire, In 1718 ; And Was Placed, When Young, Under The Care Of Mr. Davis, An Able Mathematician Of That Place, With Whom He Had Learned Both Vulgar And Decimal Arithmetic Before He Was Quite Nine Years ...

Caoutchouc
Caoutchouc, Or, As It Is Usually, Though Improperly Named, Elastic Gum, Is A Vegetable Matter, Which, In Several Of Its Physical Qualities, As Well As In Its Chemical Relations, Has Some Similarity To Vegetable Gluten, And Which So Far Agrees Both With It And Albumen, As To Approach In The ...

Capacity
Capacity, In The Modern Doctrine Of Heat, Signifies The Proportional Capabi Lity Of A Given Quantity Of Any Substance To Absorb And Retain Caloric, Or That Dis Position Or Property, By Which Various Bodies Respectively Require More Or Less Of This Fluid To Superinduce Any Given Temperature In A Given ...

Capillary
Capillary Tubes, In Physics, Litfle Pipes, Whose Canals Are Extremely Nar Row, Their Diameter Being Only A Half, Third, Or Fourth Of A Line. The Of Water, &c. In Capillary Tubes, Is A Phenomenon That Has Long Em Barrassed Philosophers ; For Let One End Of A Glass Tube, Open ...

Capra
Capra, The Goat, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Pecora. Generic Character : Horns Hollow, Com Pressed; Rough, Almost Close At Their Base, Turned Back; Eight Lower Fore Teeth ; No Tusks ; Chin In The Male Beard Ed. Of These There Are Three Species, Of ...

Caprimulgus
Caprimulgus, The Goatsucker, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Passeres. Generic Character : Bill Short And Hooked At The End ; Mouth Extremely Wide, With Seven Or More Stiff Bristles On The Upper Mandible ; Tongue Entire At The End And Small ; Tail Of Ten ...

Caravan
Caravan, In The East, Signifies A Company Or Assembly Of Travellers And Pilgrims, And More Particularly Of Mer Chants, Who, For Their Greater Security, And In Order To Assist Each Other, March In A Body Through The Deserts, And Other Dan Gerous Places, Which Are Infested With Arabs Or Robbers. ...

Carbon
Carbon, In Chemistry. The Term Car Bon Having Been Understood In Different Senses, And Having Been Actually Applied To Different Substances, It Is Necessary To Guard Against The Ambiguity Arising From This Circumstance, And With This View To Trace In A General Manner The Progress Of Those Discoveries, From Which ...

Cardan
Cardan (hrznorrintns,) In Biogra Phy, Was Born At Pavia, Sept. 24, 1501. At Four Years Old He Was Carried To Milan, His Father Being An Advocate And Physi Cian In That City : At The Age Of Twenty He Went To Study In The University Of The Same City, And ...

Cardinal
Cardinal, More Particularly, Signifies An Ecclesiastical Prince In The Romish Church, Being One Who Has A Voice In The Conclave At The Election Of A Pope.— The Cardinals Were Originally Nothing More Than Deacons, To Whom Was En Trusted The Care Of Distributing The Alms To The Poor Of The ...

Carnivorous
Carnivorous, In Zoology, An Epi Thet Generally Applied To Animals Of Every Description That Subsist For The Most Part, Or Entirely, On Animal Food. In A More Limited Sense We Understand, By Carnivo Rous Animals, Those Only Of A Savage And Voracious Nature, Assimilating In Our Ideas Some Instinctive Ferocity ...

Carriages
Carriages. This Subject, In Detail, Would Form Many An Ample Volume. The Great Variety Of Opinions, The Imperious Demands Of Locality, And The Appropriation To Particular Purposes, Must Inevitably Create A Curious Diversity In The Practices Of A Nation. Confining Ourselves To Gene Ral Principles, We Shall Discuss Only Those ...

Carrier
Carrier, Laws Relating To. Every Per Son Carrying Goods For Hire Is Deemed A Carrier, And As Such Is Liable In Law For Any Loss Or Damage That May Happen To Them Whilst In His Custody. Waggoners, Cap Tains Of Ships, Lightermen, &c. Are There Fore Carriers; But A Stage-coachman ...

Cartes Deb
Cartes Deb,) In Biography. Few Persons Have A Higher Claim To Dis Tinction Than This Philosopher ; We Shall, Therefore, In The Pre..ont Article, Inter Weave An Account Of His System With That Of His Life. Des Cartes Was A Native Of 'fontaine, In France, And Born In 1596. While ...