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Cassida
Cassida, In Natural History, A Genus Of Coleopterous Insects, Which, Accord Ing To Linnxus, Have Moniliform Anten Nx, That Become Rather Thicker Towards The End : Thorax And Wing-cases With A Broad Margin, The Former Flat, And Form Ing,a Kind Of Shield, Beneath Which The Head Is Concealed. There Are ...

Cassini
Cassini (jolts Dommc,) An Eminent Astronomer, Was Born Of Noble Parents, At A Town In Piedmont In Italy, June 8, 1625. After Laying A Proper Foundation In His Studies At Home, He Was Sent To Continue Them In A College Of Jesuits At Genoa. He Had An Uncommon Turn For ...

Cassini James
Cassini (james,) A Celebrated French Astronomer, And Member Of The Several Academies Of Sciences Of France, Eng Land, Prussia, And Bologna, Was Born At Paris, Feburary 18,1677, Being The Young Er Son Of John Dominic Cassini, Above Mentioned, Whom He Succeeded As As Tronomer At The Royal Observatory, The Elder ...

Cassiopeia
Cassiopeia, In Astronomy, A Con Stellation Of The Northern Hemisphere, Si Tuated Opposite To The Great Bear, On The Other Side Of The Pole. See Asvnoxowr. In The Year 1572, A Remarkable New Star Appeared In This Constellation, Surpassing Sirius Or Lyra In Brightness And Magni Tude. It Appeared Even ...

Castor
Castor, The Beaver, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Or Der Glires. Generic Character : Upper Fore-teeth Truncated, And Hollowed In A Transverse Angle ; Lower Transverse At The Top ; Four Grinders In Each Jaw ; Tail Long, Scaly, And Depressed ; Clavicles Per Fect. ...

Castrametation
Castrametation, Is The Art Of Measuring Or Tracing Out The Form Of A Camp On The Ground ; Yet It Sometimes Has A More Extentive Signification, By In Cluding All The Views And Designs Of A Ge Neral ; The One Requires Only The Know Ledge Of A Mathematician, The ...

Casuarina
Casuarina, In Botany, A Genus Of The 11ioncecia Monandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Conifers. Essential Character : Male Calyx Of The Ament ; Corol Scalelets Two-parted ; Female Calyx Of The Ament ; Corol None ; Style Bifid ; Strobile. There Are Five Species, Of Which C. Eqnisetifolia, ...

Catacaustic
Catacaustic Curves, In The Higher Geometry, That Species Of Caustic Curves Which Are Formed By Reflection. These Curves Are Generated After The Following Manner. If There Be An Infinite Number Of Rays, As A B, A C, A 1), &c. (plate Miscellanies, Fig. 6.) Proceeding From The Radiating Point A, ...

Catalogue
Catalogue, A List Or Enumera Tion Of The Names Of Several Books, Men, Or Other Things, According To A Certain Order. Catalogre Of The Stars, Is A List Of The Fixed Stars, Disposed In Their Several Con Stellations With The Longitudes And Lati Tudes Of Each. The Most Renowned Composers ...

Catenaria
Catenaria, In The Higher Geometry, The Name Of A Curve Line Formed By A Rope Hanging Freely From Two Points Of Sus. Pension, Whether The Points Be Horizon Tal Or Not. The Nature Of This Curve Was Sought After In Galileo's Time, But Not Discovered Till The Year 1690, When ...

Cavia
Cavia, The Cavy, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Glires. Generic Character : Two Wedge-shaped Front Teeth ; Eight Grinders ; From Four To Five Toes On The Fore-feet, From Three To Five On The Hind-feet ; Tail Very Short, Or None ; No Clavicles. There ...

Ceilambyx
Ceilambyx, In Natural History, A Nus Of Insects Of The Order Coleopt . Antenna Setaceous ; Feelers Fbur ; Tho X Spinous Or Gibbous ; Shells Linear., F This Very Beautiful And Finely Variegat Family, Many Hundred Species Have, Naturalists, Been Noticed And They Have Separated Them Into Four Di ...

Cellular
Cellular Substance, In Anatomy, Or Cellular Membrane, Is The Medium Which Connects And Supports All The Va Rious Parts And Structures Of The Body. It Is Composed Of An Assemblage Of Fi Bres, And Lamina; Of Animal Matter, Con Nected To Each Other, So As To Form Innu Merable Cells ...

Cements
Cements And Lutes. Under This Ar Ticle May Be Mentioned The Receipts For Preparing Some Of The Most Useful Sub Stances Of This Kind That Are Required In Common Chemical Operations. The Uses Of Lutes And Cements Are Either To Close The Joinings Of Chemical Vessels To Pre Vent The ...

Center
Center Of Gravity, In Mechanics, That Point About Which All The Parts Of A Body Do; In Any Situation, Exactly Balance Each Other. Hence, 1.1f A Body Be Suspended By This Point As The Center Of Motion, It Will Remain At Rest In Any Position Indiffe Rently. 2. If A ...

Center_2
Center Of Gravity Of Two Or More Bodies, A Point So Situated In A Right Line Joining The Centers Of These Bodies, That, If This Point Be Suspended The Bodies Will Equi Ponderate And Rest In Any Situation. In Two Equal Bodies It Is At Equal Distances From Both : ...

Center_3
Center Of Oscillation, That Point In A Pendulum, In Which, If The Weight Of The Several Parts Thereof Were Collected, Each Vibration Would Be Performed In The Same Time As When Those Weights Are Separate. This Is The Point From Whence The Length Of A Pendulum Is Measured, Which, In ...

Central
Central Forcer, The Powers Which Cause A Moving Body To Tend Towards, Or Recede From, The Center Of Motion. If A Body A (plate Iii. Miscel. Fig. 10.) Be Suspended At The End Of A String A C, Moveable About A Point C, As A Centre, And In That Position ...

Centrifugal
Centrifugal Machine, A Curious Ma Chine For Raising Water By Means Of A Centrifugal Force, Combined With The Pres Sure Of The Atmosphere. This Machine Consists Of A Large Tube Of Copper, &c. In The Form Of A Cross, Placed Perpendicu Larly In The Water, And Resting At The Bot ...

Cerbera
Cerbera, In Botany, A Genus Of The Pentandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Contortx. Apocinex, Jussieu. Essential Character : Contorted ; Drupe One-seeded. There Are Five Spe Cies, Of Which C. Ahouai, Oval-leafed Cer Bera, Grows Naturally In The Brazils, And Also In The Spanish West Indies In ...

Cerium
Cerium, In Chemistry, A New Metal Obtained From A Fossil Found In Sweden, To Which Has Been Given The Name Of Ce Rite. This Fossil Occurs Disseminated Or Massive ; It Is Of A Flesh Red Colour, More Or Less Deep, With Sometimes A Shade Of Yellow: It Is Semitransparent: ...

Certiiia
Certiiia, The Creeper, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Picx. Generic Character : Bill Sharp-pointed, Slender, And Incurvated ; Nostrils Small ; Tongue Varying In Shape; Legs Somewhat Stout ; Toes Three Before And One Behind, The Latter Large ; Claws Long And Hooked ; ...

Cete
Cete, In Natural History, The Seventh Order Of Mammalia, In The Linnwan Sys Tem Of Animals, Including The Four Gene Ra ; Monodon, Or Narval ; Balxna, Whale ; Physeter, Cachalot ; And Delphinus, Dol Phin. The Cetaceous Tribe Has One Or More Spiracles Placed On The Fore Part Of ...

Chalcedony
Chalcedony, In Mineralogy, A Spe Cies Of The Flint Genus ; Of Which There Are, According To Werner, Two Subspecies, Viz. The Common Chalcedony And The Came Ilan : The Colour Of The Former Is Grey In All Its Shades. It Is Commonly Semi-trans Parent, Harder Than Flint, Brittle, Diffi ...

Chalk
Chalk, In Natural History, A Species Of Calk, Which See. Chalk, Where It Is Found At All, Is The Preponderating Substance, And May There Fore Be Considered As Characterizing A Peculiar Species Of Mineral Formation. It Is Perhaps The Most Recent Of All The Va Rieties Of Calcareous Carbonates ; ...

Challenge
Challenge, In Law, Is An Exception Made To Jurors, Who Are Returned To A Person On A Trial. This Challenge Is Made Either To The Array, Or To The Polls : To The Array, When Exception Is Taken To The Whole Number Of Jurors Impannelled ; And To The Polls, ...

Chambers
Chambers, Author Of The Dictionary Of Sciences, Called The " Cyclopedia. He Was Born At Milton, In The County Of Westmoreland, Where He Received The Common Education For Qualifying A Youth For Trade And Com Merce. When He Became Of A Proper Age, He Was Put Apprentice To Mr. Se ...

Champion
Champion, A Person Who Under Takes A Combat In The Place Or Quarrel Of Another ; And Sometimes The Word Is Used For Him Who Fights In His Own Cause. It Appears That Champions, In The Just Sense Of The Word, Were Persons Who Fought Instead Of Those, That, By ...

Chances
Chances, Doctrine Of, In Mixed Mathe Matics, A Subject Of Great Importance, Es Pecially As Applied To The Doctrine Of Life Annuities, Assurance, &c. In A Great Commercial Country Like This. The Writers On This Branch Of Science Have Been Comparatively Few. In Our Own Language The Principal Treatises Are, ...

Changes
Changes, In Arithmetic, The Varia Tions Or Permutations Of Any Number Of Things, With Regard To Their Position, Order, &c. The Method Of Finding Out The Number Of Changes, Is By A Continual Multiplication Of All The Terms In A Series Of Arithmetical Progressionals, Whose First Term, And Common Difference, ...

Characters
Characters Used In .4/6rebra And Arith Metic. A, 5, C, (1, &c. The First Letters Of The Al Phabet, Are The Characters Of Given Quan Tities; And Z, Y, &c. The Last Letters, Are The Characters Of Quantities Sought. See The Article Algebra. N, R, A, T, &c. Are Characters ...

Characters_2
Characters Used In Music, And Of Mu Sical Notes, With Their Proportions, Are As Follow : Of 2 8....... A Large 3 F Crotchet 9 A Long..._....... ...4 R Quaver ...........•...• 1::1 A Breve.. ......... ...2 ; 0 A Semibreve 1 ; Demisemiquaver.a T4character Of A Sharp Note : This ...

Characters_3
Characters, Numeral, Used To Express Numbers, Are Either Letters Or Figures. The Arabic Character, Called Also The Common One, Because It Is Used Almost Throughout Europe In All Sorts Of Calcu Lations, Consists Of These Ten Digits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. The Roman Numeral ...

Characters_4
Characters, In Botany, The Descrip Tion Of The Genera Of Plants, So Termed By Linnzeus ; Hence The Generic Character Of Any Plant, And The Definition Of The Ge Nus, Are Synonymous Terms. The Term Character Is Not Extended By That Author To The Species Of Plants, Because He Never ...

Charcoal
Charcoal, Is Wood Burnt Through, And Suddenly Extinguished By Being Co. Vered With Fresh Earth. It Is Perhaps One Of The Most Durable Substances With Which We Are Acquainted, Not Being De Composed Either By The Air Or The Water. It Is Of Great Use In Many Processes Where A ...

Charles Linn1eus
Linn1eus, Charles, ( Carl Von Lima) The Most Eminent Naturalist Of This Age, And The Founder Of Modern Botany, Was Born In 1707, At Rashult, In The Province Of Smaland, In Sweden, Where His Father Resided As Assistant Minister To The Parish Of Stenbrohult. The Father Nils, Who Was The ...

Charles Stephen Camus
Camus, (charles Stephen Lawn) In Biography, A Celebrated French Mathe Matician, Was Born At Cressy En Brie, The 25th Of August, 1699. His Early Ingenui Ty In Mechanics, And His Own Entreaties, Induced His Parents To Send Lim To Study At A College In Paris, At 10 Years Of Age ...

Cheese
Cheese Is Made From The Curd Formed By Mixing Rennet With Milk, The Quality Of The Cheese Depending On That Of The Milk Used On The Occasion. Various Pro Cesses'are Recommended, But To Detail Them Would Be A Voluminous Task ; We Shall, However, State, In As Few Words As ...

Cheiranthus
Cheiranthus, In Botany, A Genus Of The Tetradynamia Siliquosa Class And Order. Natural Order Of Siliquosa Pruci Formes. Essential Character : Germ With A Glandulous Toothlet On Each Side ; Calyx Closed, With Two Leaflets, Gibbous At The Base ; Seeds Flat. There Are Twenty-two Species, Of Which C. Cheiri, ...

Chemistry
Chemistry. All The Changes That Take Place In Bodies,—whether By The Operation Of Powers Not Under The Di Rection Of Man, Which Are Called Natural Phenomena ; Or Of The Same Powers, Mo Dified In Their Direction By The Exercise Of Our Voluntary Exertions, Which Con Stitute The Processes Of ...

Chess
Chess, A Game Played By Two Per Sons Sitting And Having Between Them A Square Board, Containing 64 Rec Tangular Chequers, Alternate White And Black : Each Player Has The White Corner Square At His Right Hand. The Pieces Are As Follows, For Each Party. A Queen, Which Is Always ...

Chimney
Chimney Sweeping. Smoke, In Its Pass Age Through A Chimney, Deposits A Great Part Of The Soot With Which It Is Loaded, Upon The Sides Of The Flue, Which Causes Danger From Fire, And Is Besides Apt To Fall Back Into The Room. It Is Therefore Fre Quently Necessary To ...

Chivalry
Chivalry, In Antiquity, An Institution, Which, According To Some Writers, Took Its Rise From The Crusades ; But, According To Others, It Gave Occasion To That Enter Prise, And Which, Though Founded In Ca Price, And Productive Of Extravagance, Had A Very Considerable Influence In Refin Ing The Manners Of ...

Chorus
Chorus, In Dramatic Poetry, One Or More Persons Present On The Stage During The Representation, And Supposed To Be Bystanders, Without Any Share In The Ac Tion. Tragedy In Its Origin Was No More Than A Single Chorus, Who Trod The Stage Alone, And Without Any Actors, Singing Di. Thyrambics ...

Chrisfianity
Chris'fianity, The Religion Of Chris Tians, Who Derive Their Name From The Founder, Christ, So Denominated From The Greek Word Zinc'', I Anoint, From The Cus Torn Of Anointing Persons In The Sacerdo Tal Or Regal Character, As A Public Signal Of Their Separation To Important.offices. After The Death Of ...

Chrome
Chrome, A Metal Discovered By Vau Quelin. It Exists In The State Of An Acid, Combined With Oxide Of Lead, In A Beauti Ful Mineral Named Red Lead, Found In Si Beria, And With Regard To Which Very Dis Cordant Analyses Had Been Given By Dif Ferent Chemists. Vauquelin Reduced ...

Chronology
Chronology. The Excess Of The Solar Year Above The Lunar Is 11 Days ; Or The Epact Of Any Year Expresses The Num Ber Of Days From The Last New Moon Of The Old Year, Which Was The Beginning Of The Present Lunar Year, To The First Of January. The ...

Chronology
Chronology, Is That Science Which Relates To Time; Treats Of The Division Of It Into Certain Portions, As Days, Months, Years, Centuries ; And The Application Of These Portions, Under Various Forms And Combinations, As Cycles, Xras, &c. To The Elucidation Of History. What Is Proposed In The Present Article ...

Chronometer
Chronometer, An Instrument Or Machine For Measuring Time. The Word Is More Particularly Used By Workmen And Navigators To Denote A Watch, Or Portable Machine, In Which, By The Na Ture•of The Escapement And The Com Pensations For Heat And Cold, Mean Time Is Or Ought To Be Kept With ...

Chyme
Chyme, In Animal Economy : In The Process Of Digestion, The Food Is Subject Ed To A Temperathre Usually Above 90° Of Fahrenheit ; It Is Mixed With The Gastric Juice, A Liquor Secreted By The Glands Of The Stomach, And Is Made To Undergo A Moderate And Alternate Pressure, ...

Cicada
Cicada, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Hemiptera. Generic Character : Snout Inflected ; Antennas Seta Ceous; The Four Wings Membranaceous And Deflected ; Legs In Most Of The Spe Cies Formed For Leaping. These Insects Live On Various Plants ; The Larva Is Apte Rous ...

Ciiancery
Ciiancery, The Grand Court Of Equi Ty And Conscience, Instituted To Moderate Rigour Of The Other Courts That Are Bound To The Strict Letter Of The Ian-. In Chancery Are Two Courts; One Ordi Nary, Being A Court Of Common Law ; The Other Extraordmary, Being A Court Of Equi ...

Circle
Circle, The Name Of Various Astrono Nomical Instruments For Observing Right Ascensions, Declinations, Azimuths, Alti Tudes, And Likewise For .the Purposes Of The Most Improved Theodolite. Plate Circular Instrument" Is A Re Presentation Of An Instrument Made By Mr. Troughton, And Of Which Lie Liberally Permitted Our Draughtsman To Take ...

Circumferentor
Circumferentor, A Mathemati Cal Instrument, Used By Land-surveyors For Taking Angles By The Magnetic Nee Dle. It Is An Instrument ( Where Great Accuracy Is Not Desired) Much Used In Surveying, In And About Woodlands, Com Mons, Harbours, Seacoasts, In The Work. Ing Of Coal-mines, &c. &c. Where A Per ...

Cities
Cities, Rise Of. After The Fall Of The Roman Empire, The Proprietors Of Land Lived Principally On Their Own Estates; The Towns Were Inhabited By Mechanics And Tradesmen, Chiefly In The Condition Of Slaves. The People, To Whom It Was Granted As A Privilege That They Might Give Away Their ...

Citric
Citric Acid, In Chemistry, Is Found In The Juice Of Lemons And Limes, And Is That Which Gives It The Sour Taste. It Is Mixed, However, With Mucilaginous And Extractive Matter. Scheele Found That It Could Not Be Obtained Pure And Crystal Lized By Mere Evaporation Of The Lemon Juice, ...

Civet
Civet, A Kind Of Perfume, Bearing The Name Of The Animal Whence It Is Taken. The Animal Commonly Known By The Name Of The Civet, Or Civet-cat, Is The Vi Verra Civetta Of Linnwus. The Civet Is An Animal Of A Wild Dispo Sition, And Lives In The Usual Manner ...

Clairault
Clairault (alexis C Laude), A Ce Lebrated French Mathematician And Aca Demician, Was Born At Paris The 13th Of May, 1713. His Father, A Teacher Of Ma Thematics At Paris, Was His Sole Instructor, Teaching Him Even The Letters Of The Al Phabet On The Figures Of Euclid's Ele Ments, ...

Clarification
Clarification, Is The Separation, By Chemical Means, Of Any Liquid From Substances Suspended In It,and Rendering It Turbid. If A Difference Can Be Made Be Tween Clarification And Filtration, It Is, That The Latter Is Effcted By Mere Me Chanical Means, But The Former Either By Heat Or By Certain ...

Clay
Clay. Any Natural Earthy Mixture, Which Possesses Plasticity And Ductility When Kneaded Up With Water, Is In Com Mon Langi.age Called A Clay. All Mine Ralogists, However, Have Comprehended The Appellation, Not Only Clays, Properly So Called, But A Few Other Mine Ral Substances Nearly Allied To Some Of, The ...

Clepsydra
Clepsydra, A Water-clock, Or In Strument To Measure Time By The Fall Of A Certain Quantity Of Water. The Construction Of A Clepsydra. To Di Vide Any Cylindrical Vessels Into Parts, To Be Emptied In Each Division Of Time, The Time Wherein The Whole, And That Where In Any Part ...

Clergy
Clergy, A General Name Given To The Body Of Ecclesiastics Of The Christian Church, In Contradistinction To The Laity. The Privileges And Immunities Which The Clergy Of The Primitive Christian Church Enjoyed Deserve Our Notice. In The First Place, When They Travelled Upon Neces Sary Occasions, They Were To Be ...

Cliamberlain
Cliamberlain, Lord, Of Great Britain, The Sixth Great Officer Of The Crown; To Whom Belongs Livery And Lodging In The King's Court ; And There Are Certian Fees Due To Him From Each Archbishop Or Bishop, When They Perform Their Homage To The King: And From All Peers At Their ...

Climate
Climate, In Geography, A Space Upon The Surface Of The Terrestrial Globe, Contained Between Two Parallels, And So Far Distant From Each Other, That The Longest Day In One Differs Half An Hour From The Longest Day In The Other Paral Lel. The Difference Of Climates Arises From The Different ...

Clock
Clock, In Horology, Is A Machine Which Measures Time With A Degree Of Accuracy That Gives It A Just Preference Over The Clepsydra, And Other Methods Anciently Used For The Same Purpose. See Clepsydrie. The Sphere Of Archimedes, Made Two Hundred Years Before The Birth Of Christ, Is Usually Considered ...

Cloth
Cloth, A Woven Fabric, Composed Of Wool, Flax, Cotton, Or Hemp, Either Sepa Rate Or Mixed. Woollen Cloths Consist Chiefly Of Broad Cloths, Kerseymeres, Flannels, Shalloons, Serges, Baizes, &c. : The Two Former Are The Most Valuable, And Will Be Chiefly Noticed. The Wool Should Be Of The Best Quality, ...

Clupea
Clupea, The Herring, In Natural Histo Ry, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Abdo Minales. Generic Character : Head Com Pressed; Mouth Compressed And Inter Nally Rough ; Jaws Unequal ; Tongue Short And Rough ; With Inverted Teeth ; Side. Plates Of The Upper Mandible Serrated ; Gill-membrane ...