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Court
Court, In A Law Sense, The Place Where Judges Distribute Justice, Or Exer Cise Jurisdiction ; Also The Assembly Of Judges, Jury, &c. In That Place. Courts Are Divided Into Superior And In Ferior, And Into Courts Of Record And Base Courts : Again, Courts Are Either Such As Are ...

Crane
Crane, In Mechanics, A Machine For Raising Goods Into Loft, Or From Vessels To Wharfs, Or For Lowering Them From Heights, &c. In A Safe Manner, And By The Application Of A Comparatively Small Power. Numberless Contrivances Have Been Resorted To For These Purposes ; The First Of Them Appears ...

Craniology
Craniology. The Consideration Of The Various Men Tal Powers Belongs To The Science Of Me Taphysics, And Will Be Pursued Under The Proper Articles. Sleeping And Watching. Sleep Is The Repose Of The Organs Of Sense, And Of The Voluntary Motions, By Means Of Which The Communication Of The Senses ...

Credit
Credit, In Political Economy, Is The Trust Which An Individual Places In Ano Ther Individual, Or In The State, In Pecu Niary Transactions. This Trust Arises From A Confidence In The Creditor, That The Debt Or Will Fulfil The Engagement Into Which He Enters. ' The Foundation Of Credit Is ...

Crepusculum
Crepusculum, Twilight, The Time From The First Dawn Or Appearance Of The Morning To The Rising Of The Sun ; And Again, Between The Setting Of The Sun And The Last Remains Of Day. The Crepusculum, Or Twilight, It Is Sup Posed, Usually Begins And Ends When The Sun Is ...

Cribbage
Cribbage, A Game At Cards, Wherein No Cards Are To Be Thrown Out, And The Set To Make Sixty-one : And As It Is An Ad Vantage To Deal, By Reason Of The Crib, Itis Proper To Lift For It, And He That Has The Least Card Deals. There Are ...

Cricket
Cricket, The Name Of An Exercise Or Game With Bats And Balls. The Laws Of This Game, As Settled By The Cricket Club In 1744, And Played At The Artillery Ground, London, Are As Follow. The Pitch Ing The First Wicket Is To Be Determined By The Cast Of A ...

Criticism
Criticism, Verbal, Is The Art Of Settling, With Probability, Or, As A Practitioner Of That Art Would Say, With Precision, The Text Of The Ancient Greek And Latin Clas Sic Authors. This Species Of Criticism Takes Its Rise From The State In Which The Writ Ings Of Those Authors Have ...

Criticism
Criticism, From The Greek Word Agma), Signifies, In General, The Art Of ; Judging ; But In Its More Restrained And Usual Sense, Denotes The Art Of Judging With Propriety Concerning The Nature Of Literary Compositions. Notwithstanding The Ignorance And In Solence Which Have Occasionally Disgraced I The Writings Of ...

Crotalus
Crotalus, The Rattlesnake, In Natu Ral History, A Genus Of Amphibia, Of The Order Of Serpentes. Generic Character : Scuta On The Abdomen ; Scuta And Scales Beneath The Tail ; Rattle At The End Of The Tail. There Are Five Species, All Natives Of America. The C. Horridus, Or ...

Crusts
Crusts, Ii Chemistry. By Crusts We Understand Those Bony Coverings,of Which The Whole External Surface Of Crabs, Lob Sters, And Other Similar Sea Animals, Are Composed. Mr. Hatchett Found Them Composed Of Three Ingredients : 1. A Car Tilaginous Substance Possessing The Pro Perties Of Coagulated Albumen. 2. Carbo Nate ...

Crystallization
Crystallization. When The At Traction Of Aggregation Has Been Weak Ened, Either By The Application Of Heat, Or Of A Chemical Affinity, And Is Suffered To Resume Its Force More Slowly Or Equally, The Particles Are Not United Indiscrimi Nately, But In Uniting Assume A Particular Arrangement ; And Thus ...

Crystallography
Crystallography. Hauy Has Succeeded In Developing The Theory Of Crystals, So Far As To Shew, That In Every Crystallized Substance, Whatever May Be The Difference Of Figure Which May Arise From Modifying Circumstances, There Is In All Its Crystals A Primitive The Nu Cleus, As It Were, Of The Crystal, ...

Csexical Arrangement Of Bodies
Csexical Arrangement Of Bodies. I. Substances Not Yet Decomposed, Called Simple Principles. 1. Principles Of Doubtful Existence. These Are (a) Heat, (b) Light, And The Causes Of (c) Galvanic, 1/4d) Electric, And (e) Magnetic Phenomena. These Ener Gies Cannot Be Confined In Vessels ; They Are Not Measurable By Figured ...

Cuculus
Cuculus, The Cuckow, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds, Of The Order Ili Cm. Generic Character: Bill Smooth, Somewhat Bending And Weak ; Nostrils Surrounded By A Small Rim ; Tongue Short And Arrowed ; Toes Two Forward And Two Backward ; Tail Wedge-formed, Of Ten Soft Feathers. ...

Culex
Culex, Gnat, In Natural History, A Ge Nus Of Insects Of The Order Diptera. Gene Ric Character : Mouth Consisting Of Seta Ceous Piercers Within A Flexible Sheath ; Antennae Approximate, Filiform. Gmelin Enumerates Fourteen Species. The Com Mon Gnat Of Europe Is Produced From An Aquatic Larva Of A ...

Cummiti
Cummiti. Emplastrum Ladani Compositum, Plaster A Laudanum Compound. Emplastrum Cantharidis, Lond. Dubl. Emplastrum Meloes Vesicatorii, Edin. Plas Ter Of Eanthrides. Emplastrum Meloes Vesicatorii Conapo It. Edin. Plaster Of Cantharides, Com Pound. Emplastrum Oxidi Plumbi Semivitrei, Ediii. Emplastrum Lithargyri, Plaster Of Common Litharge. Emplastrum Resinorum, Edin. Emplas Trum Lithargyri Cum Resina, ...

Curculio
Curculio, Weevil, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Coleopte : Antennae Clavate, Seated On The Snout, Which Is Horny And Prominent ; Four Feel Ers, Filiform. Of This Genus There Have Been From 800 To 1000 Species Enumerat Ed, And There Are Probably Many More That ...

Currying
Currying Is The Art Of Dressing Cow Hides, Calves-skins, Seal-skins, &c. Prin Cipally For Shoes : And This Is Done Either Upon The Flesh Or The Grain. In Dressing Leather For Shoes Upon The Flesh, The First Operation Is Soaktnff The Leather In Water Until It Is Thoroughly Wet ; ...

Curvature
Curvature, Of A Line, Is The Peculiar Manner Of Its Bending Or Flexure, By Which It Becomes A Curve Of Such And Such Pe Culiar Properties. Any Two Arches Of Curve Lines Touch Each Other, When The Same Right Line Is The Tangent Of Both At The Same Point ; ...

Curve
Curve, In Geometry, A Line, Which, Running On Continually In All Directions, May Be Cut By One Right Line In More Points Than One. Curves Are Divided Into Algebraical Or Geometrical, And Transcen Dental. Geometrical Or Algebraical Curves Are Those, Whose Ordinates And Abscisses Being Right Lines, The Nature Thereof ...

Custom
Custom, A Very Comprehensive Term, Denoting The Manners, Ceremonies, And Fa Shions Of A People, Which, Having Turned Into A Habit, And Passed Into Use, Obtains The Force Of Laws ; In Which Sense It Im Plies Such Usages As, Though Voluntary At First, Are Yet, By Practice, Become Ne ...

Customs
Customs, In Commerce, The Duties Or Taxes Payable Upon The Importation Or Exportation Of Merchandise. They Appear To Have Been Originally Levied To Reimburse The Sovereign For The Expense He Incurred In Protecting Foreign Trade, And W,ere Considered As Taxes -upon The Profits Of The Merchants, Being Imposed Equally Upon ...

Custos
Custos Brevium, The Principal Clerk Belonging To The Court Of Common Pleas, Whose Business Is To Receive And Keep All The Writs Made Returnable In That Court, Filing Every Return By Itself ; And, At The End Of Each Term, To Receive Of The Pro Thonotaries All The Records Of ...

Cuticle
Cuticle, Cuticula, In Anatomy, A Thin Membrane, Closely Lying Upon The Skin Or Cutis, Of Which It Seems A Part, And To Which It Adheres Very Firmly, Being Assisted By The Intervention Of The Corpus Reticulare. Cum, The Skin, In Anatomy, Is That Strong Covering Which Envelopes The Whole External ...

Cutlery
Cutlery. Though Cutlery, In The Gene Ral Sense, Comprises All Those Articles Denominated Edge-tools, It Is More Parti Cularly Confined To The Manufacture Of Knives, Forks, Scissars, Penknives, Razors, And Swords. Damascus Was Anciently Famed For Its Razors, Sabres, And Swords. The Latter Are Said To Possess All The Ad ...

Cycloid
Cycloid, In Geometry, A Curve Of The Transcendental Kind, Called Also The Tro Choid. It Is Generated In The Following Manner : If The Circle C D H (plate Iii. Miscel. Fig. 15.) Roll On The Given Straight Line A B, So That All The'parts Of The Cir Cumference Be ...

Cyclopterus
Cyclopterus, The Sucker, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Cartilaginei. Generic Character : Head Obtuse ; Tongue Short And Thick ; Teeth In The Jaws ; Body Short, Thick, And With Out Scales ; Ventral Fins United Into An Oval Concavity, Forming An Instrument Of Adhesion. ...

Cyder
Cyder, A Well-known Liquor, Serving In Many Parts Of England As At,, Common Beverage, Though Not Considered To Be So Wholesome As Well Made Beer, Especially To Prcsons Troubled With Gravel, Or Chronic Complaints Of Any Kind. Cyder Is Made From Apples, Which Should Be Mellow Ripe, And Gathered When ...

Cylinder
Cylinder, Properties Of The. 1. The Sec Tion Of Every Cylinder By A Plane Oblique To Its Base Is An Ellipsis. 2. The Superficies Of A Right Cylinder Is Equal To The Periphe Ry Of The Base Multiplied Into The Length Of Its Side. 3. The Solidity Of A Cylinder ...

Cynics
Cynics, A Sect Ofancient Philosophers, Who Valued Themselves Upon Their Con Tempt Of Riches And State, Arts And Sci Ences, And Every Thing, In Short, Except Virtue Or Morality. The Sect Of The Cynics, Founded By Antisthenes, Is Not So Much To Be Regard Ed As A School Of Philosophy, ...

Cyprinus
Cyprinus The Carp, In Natural Histo Ry, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Abdo Minales. Generic Character: Mouth Small And Without Teeth ; Gill Membrane, With Three Rays; Ventral Fins Often, And, Per Haps, Generally Nine-rayed. Of This Fish There Are Fifty Species, Of Which It Will Be Sufficient ...

Dasypus
Dasypus, The Armadillo, In Natural History, A Genus Of Alammalia Of The Order Bruta. Generic Character : No Tusks ; Grinders Short And Cylindrical, And Seven Or Eight In Each Jaw ; Body Covered With A Shelly Armour, Intersected By Circles. These Animals Chiefly Inhabit South A Merica, Where They ...

Deafness
Deafness, The State Of A Person Who Wants The Sense Of Hearing; Or The Dis Ease Of The Ear, Which Prevents Its Due Reception Of Sounds. Deafness Generally Arises, Either From An Obstruction Or A Compression Of The Auditory Nerve ; Or From Some Collection Of Matter In The Ca ...

Death
Death. Physicians Usually Define Death By A Total Stoppage Of The Circula Tion Of The Blood, And A Cessation Of The Animal And Vital Functions Consequent Thereon ; As Respiration, Sensation, &c. An Animal Body, By The Actions Insepa Rable From Liffi, Undergoes A Continual Change. Its Smallest Fibres Become ...

Deatil
Deatil -watch, In Natural History, A Little Insect, Famous For A Ticking Noise Like The Beat Of A Watch, Which The Vulgar Have Long Taken For A Presage Of Death In The Family Where It Is Heard ; An Error That Cannot Be Too Often Confuted By Facts. There Are ...

Debt
Debt, National, The Engagement En Tered Into By A Government, To Repay At A Future Period Money Advanced By Indivi Duals For The Public Service, Or To Pay The Lenders An Equivalent Annuity. National Debts Have Arisen From' The Necessity Of Obtaining Larger Sums Of Money Than Could Be Raised, ...

Decandr1a
Decandr1a, In Botany, The Name O The Tenth Class In Linnmus S System, Con Sisting Of Plants, Whose Flowers, As Name Imports, Are Furnished With Ten Sta Mina Or Male Organs. This Class, As Well As The Other Classes In Linnmus's Method That Are Compounded With A Numeral, Has Another' ...

Deciduus
Deciduus, In Botany, A Term Expres Sive Of The Second Stage Of Duration In Plants, But, Like Caducus, Susceptible Of Differ6nt Senses, According To The Par Ticular Part Of The Plant To Which It Is Applied. A Leaf Is Said To Be Deciduus Which Drops In Autumn ; Petals Are ...

Decimal
Decimal Arithmetic, The Art Of Com Puting By Decimal Fractions. Mensal. Fraction, That Whose Denomi Nator Is Always 1, With One Or More Cy Phers : Thus An Unit May Be Imagined To Be Equally Divided Into 10 Parts, And Each Of These Into 10 More ;.so That By A ...

Declination
Declination, In Astronomy, The Dis Tance Of Any Celestial Object From The Equinoctial, Either Northward Or South Ward. It Is Either True Or Apparent, Ac Cording As The Real Or Apparent Place Of The Object Is Considered. A Great Circle Is Supposed To Pass Through The Two Poles, And Through ...

Decoy
Decoy, Among Fowlers, A Place Made For Catching Wild Fowl. A Decoy Is Gene Rally Made Where There Is A Large Pond Surrounded With Wood, And Beyond That A Marshy And Uncultivated Country : If The Piece Of Water Is Not Thus Surrounded, It Will Be Attended With Noises And ...

Deed
Deed, Is A Written Contract, Sealed And Delivered. It Must Be Written Before The Sealing And Delivery, Otherwise It Is No Deed ; And After It Is Once Formally Exe Cluted By The Parties, Nothing Can Be Add Ed Or Interlined ; And Therefore, If A. Deed Be Sealed And ...

Definition
Definition, The Sheaving The Mean Ing Of One Word By Several Other Riot Sy Nonymous Terms. The Meaning Of Words Being Only The Ideas They Are Made To Stand For By Him That Uses Them, The Meaning Of Any Term Is Then Sheaved, Or The Word Is Defined, When By ...

Definitions 1
Definitions. 1. A Point 'lath Neither Parts Nor Mag Nitude. 2. A Line Has Length, Without Breadth. 3. The Ends, Or Bounds, Of A Line Are Points. 4. A Right Line Lies Evenly Between Two Points. 5. A Superficies Or Plane Has Only Length And Breadth. 6. Planes Are Bounded ...

Degree
Degree, In Universities, Denotes A Qua Lity Conferred On The Students Or Mem Bers Thereof; As A Testimony Of Their Pro Ficiency In The Arts Or Sciences, And Enti Tling Them To Certain Privileges. The De Grees Are Much The Same In All Universi Ties, But The Laws Thereof, And ...

Deists
Deists, In The Modern Sense Of The Word, Are Those Persons In Christian Countries, Who, Acknowledging' All The Obligations And Duties Of Natural Religion, Disbelieve The Christian Scheme, Or Re Vealed Religion. They Are So Called From Their Belief In God Alone, In Opposition To Christians. The Late Learned Dr. ...

Delft
Delft Ware, A Kind Of Pottery Of Baked Earth, Covered With An Enamel Or White Glazing, Which Gives It The Appear Ance And Neatness Of Porcelain. Some Kinds Of This Enamelled Pottery Differ Much From Others, Either In Their Sustain Ing Sudden Heat Without Breaking, Or In The Beauty And ...

Delphinus
Delphinus, The Dolphin, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia Of The Or Der Cetw. Generic Character : Teeth In Each Jaw ; Spiracle On The Head. Shaw Enumerates Six Species, And Gmelin Four. C. Phoczna, Or The Porpesse, Is The Most Abundant Of Cetaceous Animals, And Is Found Particularly ...

Democracy
Democracy, The Same With A Popu Lar Government, Wherein The Supreme Power Is Lodged In The Hands Of The Peo Ple. The Advantages Of A Democracy, Where The People At Large, Either Collectively, Or By Representation, Constitute The Le Gislature, Are, Liberty, Or Exemption From Needless Restrictions, Equal Laws, Regula ...

Description
Description, Is Such A Strong And Beautiful Representation Of A Thing, As Gives The Reader A Distinct View And Sa Tisfactory Notion Of It. Dsscatrrtom. In Deeds And Grants There Must Be A Certain Description Of The Lands Granted, The Places Where They Lie, And The Persons To Whom Granted, ...

Design
Design, In The Manufactories, Express Ses The Figures With Which The Workman Enriches His Stuff, Or Silk, And Which He Copies After Some Painter, Or Eminent Draughtsman, As In Diaper, Damask, And Other Flowered Silk And Tapestry, And The Like. In Undertaking Of Such Kinds Of Figur Ed Stuffs, It ...

Diagonal
Diagonal, In Geometry, A Right Line Drawn Across A Quadrilateral Figure, From One Angle To Another, By Some Called The Diameter, And By Others The Diameter Of The Figure. Thus A C, (plate Iv. Mis Eel. Fig. 7.) Is Called A Diagonal. It Is Demonstrable, 1. That Every Dia Gonal ...

Dial
Dial. Dials Are Of Various Construc Tions, Some Being Horizontal, Others Ver Tical, And Others Moveable, So As To Apply To Any Particular Latitude At Pleasure. The Use Of A Dial Is To Indicate The Hour, Which Is Done By Means Of A Wire, Or By A Triangular Board, &c. ...

Diamond
Diamond. The Diamond Has Always Been Regarded As The Most Valuable Of The Gems, And, Consequently, As The Most Valuable Production Of The Mineral World; A Superiority Which It Derives From Its Very High Lustre, Its Transparency, And Hardness. The First Quality Arises From Its Greater Refractive Power, Which Is ...

Didelphis
Didelphis, The Opossum, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia Of The Or Der Fern. Generic Character : Fore-teeth Small And Rounded ; Upper, Ten, Small And Rounded ; Intermediate, Two, Longer ; Lower, Eight, Intermediate Two Broader, And Very Short ; Tusks Long ; Grinders Clenticulated ; Tongue Fringed ...

Dietetics
Dietetics, The Science Or Philosophy Of Diets ; That Which Teaches Us To Adapt Particular Foods To Particular Organs Of Digestion, Or To Particular States Of The Same Organs ; So That The Greatest Pos Sible Portion Of Nutriment May Be Ex Tracted From A Given Quantity Of Nutritive Matter ...

Difficult Ladouil
Difficult Ladouil Of Difficult Labour There Are Three Ape. Cies : First, Those Labours Which, Though Protracted, Are Ultimately Accomplished By The Powers Of Nature Unassisted By Art. Secondly, Those Which, Although Requir Ing The Assistance Of Art, Yet Are Compati-% Ble With The Life Both Of The Mother And ...

Diplomatic
Diplomatic Letters. The Art Of Read Ing Letters Written In Cypher Must Be Founded On The Knowledge Of The Art Of Writing According To This Method Of Con Cealment. In Examining A Piece In Newly Invented Characters, We Should Endea Vour To Ascertain Whether The Number Of The Characters Correspond, ...

Dipus
Dipus, The Jerboa, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Glires. Generic Character : Two Front Teeth In The Upper And In The Under Jaw ; Fore Legs Very Short, Hind Legs Very Long ; Clavicles In The Skeleton; Tail Long And Tufted At The Tip. Shaw ...

Discount
Discount, A Compensation For The Advance Of Money Which Is Not Due Till After A Certain Period. The Person Ad Vancing The Money, Had He Retained It, Might Have Made In The Given Time A Cer Tain Rate Of Interest ;, Therefore, If He Ad Varices It For The Use ...