Home >> British Encyclopedia >> Exoacantha to Fortification

American Edition of the British Encyclopedia

Exoacantha
Exoacantha, In Botany, A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Umbellate. Essential Character : Involute Spiny ; Involucle Halved, With Unequal Rays ; Flowers Alt Hermaphrodite, With Equal, Inflex, Heart Shaped Petals; Seeds Ovate, Striate. There Is But One Species, Viz. E. Heterophylla, Found By ...

Expansion
Expansion, In Natural Philosophy, He Enlargement Or Increase Of Bulk In Dies, Chiefly By Means Of Heat. This S One Of The Most General Effects Of Ca Oric, Being Common To All Bodies What Ver, Whether Solid Or Fluid, Or In An Aeri Orm State. In Some Cases Bodies Seem ...

Experimental
Experimental Philosophy, That Phi Losophy Which Proceeds On Experiments, Which Deduces The Laws Of Nature, And The Properties And Powers Of Bodies, And Their Actions Upon Each Other, From Sen Sible Experiments And Observations. The Business Of Experimental Philosophy Is, To Inquire Into And To Investigate The Rea Sons And ...

Experiments
Experiments. The Most Striking And The Most Corn , Mon Experiments Are Those Which Consist In The Galvanic Energy Upon The Organs Of .animals. If Two Metallic Rods, Or, What Is Equally Convenient, Two Silver Spoons, Be Grasped, One In Each Hand, The Skin Of The Part Being Previously Moistened ...

Explanation
Explanation Or Top. Anatomical Plates. Plate I. Fig. 1. A Front View Of The Skoleton, I. The Cranium. 2. Os Frontis. 3. 3. The Orbits. 4. Upper Jaw-bone. 5. Teeth. 6. Lower Jaw-hone. 7. The Seven True Ribs. 8. The Five False Ribs.._ 9. First Bone Of The Sternum. 10. ...

Explosion
Explosion, In Natural Philosophy, A Sudden And Violent Expansion Of An. Ae Rial Or Other Elastic Fluid, By Which It In Stantly Throws Off Any Obstacle That Hap Pens To Be In The Way, Sometimes With In Credible Force, And In Such A Manner As To Produce The Most Astonishing ...

Exportation
Exportation, The Act Of Sending Goods Out Of One Country Into Another. In Modern Times It Has Been The Principal Object Of Commercial Policy, In Almost Every Country, To Encourage Exportation, Except With Respect To A Few Particular Articles ; The Export Of Manufactured Goods Has Been Promoted, With A ...

Extern1ination
Extern1ination, In General, The Ex Tirpating Ordestroying Something. In Alge Bra, Surds, Fractions, And Unknown Quanti Ties, Are Exterminated By Rules For Reduc Ing Equations. Thus To Take Away The Frac Tional Form From These Equations A=x ; Y Al X And +b. I =; Both Cases We Multiply ...

Exuviie
Exuviie, Among Naturalists, Denote The East-off Parts Or Coverings Of Animals, As The Skins Of Serpents, Caterpillars, And Other Insects. See Entomology. Reauniur Is Very Particular In De Scribing The Manner In Which The Cater Pillar Tribe Throw Off; Or Extricate Them Selves From Their Exuvim. See Vol. I. Of ...

Exuvle
Exuvle, Among Naturalists, Denote The Cast-off Parts Or Coverings Of Animals, As The Skins Of Serpents, Caterpillars, And Other Insects. See Entomology. M. Reaumur Is Very Particular In De Scribing The Manner In Which The Cater Pillar Tribe Throw Off, Or Extricate Them Selves From Their Exuvix. See Vol. I. ...

Fairy
Fairy Rings. The Circles Of Dark Green Grass, Frequently Observed !in Old Pastures, Have Long Been Known Under The Name Of Fairy Rings, And Have Gene Rally Been Supposed To Be Occasioned, In Some Way Or Other, By Electricity. Dr. Wollaston Has, In A Late Volume Of The " Transactions ...

Falco
Falco, The Falcon, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Accipi Tres. Generic Character : The Bill Hooked And Covered At The Base With A Cere ; Head And Neck Covered With Closely-set Feathers ; Tongue Bifid At The End ; Nos Trils Placed In The Cere ...

Fallo Ing
Fallo Ing, In Agriculture, The Practice Of Preparing Lands By Repeated Ploughing, Harrowing, &c. So As To Render Them Fit For The Growth Of Grain. Though By The Frequent Turning Of Land, And Exposing New Surfaces Of The Soil To The Operation And Influence Of The Atmos Phere, Various Changes ...

Farriery
Farriery, As May Be Seen In The Pre Ceding Article, Originally Implied Nothing More Than The Art Of Applying Iron, Or Other Substances, To The Feet Of Horses, Whereby To Defend Them From The Injuries To Which They Are Subject In Travelling On Hard Surfaces. It Was Probably Owing To ...

Fata
Fata Morgana, A Very Remarkable Aerial Phenomenon, Which Is Sometimes Observed From The Harbour Of Messina And Adjacent Places, At A Certain Height In The Atmosphere. The Name, Which Sig Nifies The Fairy Morgana, Is Derived From An Opinion Of The Superstitious Sicilians, That The Whole Spectacle Is Produced By ...

Feather
Feather, In Physiology, A General Name For The Covering Of Birds ; It Being Common To All The Animals Of This Class To Have Their Whole Body, Or At Least The Greatest Part Of It, Covered With Feathers Or Plumage. There Are Two Sorts Of Feathers Found On Birds, Viz. ...

Febbuart
Febbuart. -kitchen-garden. Cucumbers And Melons Will Be Sown With Better Success In This, Than In The Former Month ; But Take Care They Have Not Too Much Heat, As They Will Be Apt To Wither : To Prevent This, Let Them Be Sown Or Set Upon Little Hillocks, Or Ridges, ...

Feces
Feces. The Excrementitious Matter Of Animals, Evacuated Per Anum, Consists Of All That Food Which Cannot Be Employ Ed For Purposes Of Nutrition, Considera Bly Altered, At Least In Part, And Mixed Or United With Various Bodies Employed Du Ring Digestion, To Separate' The Useless Part Of The Food From ...

Felts
Felts, The Cat, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Fem. Generic Character : Six Foreteeth, Inter Mediate Ones Equal, Three Grinders On Each Side ; Tongue Prickly Backwards ; Claws Retractile. Animals Of This Com Prehensive Class Never Unite In Compa Nies For Mutual Defence, But ...

Female Organs Of Generation
Female Organs Of Generation. An Ovarium Is The Most Essential And Universal Of All The Female Parts Of Gene Ration. In Addition To This, Those Ani Mals Which Breathe By Means Of Lungs, As Well As Some Fishes, And Several White Blooded Animals, Have, Also Oviducts, (fallopian Tubes, &c.) Or ...

Feminine
Feminine, In Grammar, One Of The Genders Of Nouns. As There Are But Two Sexes, So In Fact, There Can Be But Two Genders. The Feminine Gender Serves To Intimate That The Noun Belongs To The Female. Ix Latin, The Feminine Gender Is Most Com Monly Distinguished By The Article ...

Fencing
Fencing, Is The Manner Of Attacking En Adversary With The Sword, And De Fending The Person From His Thrusts. It Js Necessary In Acquiring This Difficult Art To Use Foils, Or Small Thin Swords, Which Being Blunted At The Points, And Bending Readily, Prevents Accidental Wounds. The Gladiators, Who Were ...

Feoffment
Feoffment, In Law, May Be Defined To Be The Gift Of Any Corporeal Purdita Ment To Another. He That So Gives Or Enfeoffs Is Called The Feoffer; And The Person Enfeoffed Is Denominated The Feoffee. But By The Mere Words Of The Deed The Feoffment Is By No Means Per ...

Ferguson
Ferguson (jaxxs,) An Eminent Ex Perimental Philosopher, Mechanic, And Astronomer, Was Born In Bamffshire, In Scotland, 1710, Of Very Poor Parents. At The Very Earliest Age His Extraordinary Ge Nius Began To Unfold Itself. He First Learn Ed To Read, By Overhearing His Father Teach His Elder Brother; And He ...

Fermentation
Fermentation. The Word Fermen Tation, In General, Is Used To Denote That Change In The Principles Of Organic Bo Dies, Which Begins To Take Place Sponta Neously As Soon As Their Vital Functions Have Ceased, And By Them Are At Length Reduced To Their First Principles. This Has Been Distinguished ...

Feypochondriasis And Sick Read Ach
Feypochondriasis And Sick Read-ach : The Disease Of Erudition And Study. The Elegant And Accurate Aretzus Ex Presses Himself To The Following Effect, In His Very Valuable Chapter On Diseases Of The Stomach. " The Stomach Is A Grand Seat Of Plea Surable Feelings And Of Disquie Tude. When Its ...

Fibrin
Fibrin. If A Quantity Of Blood, Newly Drawn From An Animal, Be Allowed To Re Main At Rest For Some Time, A Thick Red Clot, Gradually Forms In It, And Subsides. Separate This Clot From The Rest Of The Blood, Put It Into A Linen Cloth, And Wash It Repeatedly ...

Ficus
Ficus, In Botany, English A Genus Of The Polygamia Trioecia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Scabridx. Urticie, Jussieu. Essential Character: Re Ceptacle Common, Turbinate, Fleshy, Con Verging, Concealing The Floscules, Either On The Same Or A Distinct Individual : Male Calyx Corolla None; Stamens Three: Female Calyx Five-parted ; ...

Figurate
Figurate Numbers, Are Distinguished Into Orders, According To Their Place In The Scale Of' Their Generation, Being All Pro Duced One From Another, Viz. By Adding Continually The Terms Of Any One, The Suc Cessive Sums Are The Terms Of The Next Order, Beginning From The First Order, Which Is ...

Files
Files, Manufactory Of Many Useful Tools Have Been Invented For Performing Mechanical Operations, Which Consist Of A Number Of Wedges Or Teeth, Which May Be Conceived To Stand Upon, Or Rise Out Of, A Flat Or Curved Metallic Surface. When These Teeth Are Formed Upon The Edge Of A Plate, ...

Filices
Filices, Ferns, One Of The Seven Fami Lies Or Natural Tribes Into Which The Whole Vegetable Kingdom Is Divided By Linn Limns, In His " Philosophia Botanica." They Are Defined To Be Plants Which Bear Their Flower And Fruit On The Back Of The Leaf Or Stalk, Which, In This ...

Filter
Filter, In Chemistry, A Strainer Com Monly Made Of Bibulous Or Filtering Paper In The Form Of A Funnel, Through Which Any Fluid Is Passed, In Order To Separate The Gross Particles From It, And Render It Limpid. There Are Several Filters Made Of Flannel And Linen Cloth. The Filter ...

Finances
Finances, In Political Economy, De Note The Revenue Of A King Or State. In Former Times, When The Whole Re Venue Drawn From The People, By A Few Taxes, Was Considered As The Personal Property Of The Sovereign, The Purposes 'o Which It Was Applied Depended On His Uiscretion, Or ...

Fine
Fine, In Law, Is Sometimes Called A Feoffment Of Record ; Or, Rather, It Is An Acknowledgment Of A Feoffment On Re Cord: It Has At Least The Effect Of A Feoffi Meet In Conveying Lands, Though It Is One Of Those Conveyances At The Common Law, By Which Lands ...

Fire
Fire, Balls Of, In Meteorology, A Kind Of Luminous Bodies, Generally Appearing At A Great Height Above The Earth, With A Splendour Surpassing That Of The Moon ; And Sometimes Equalling Her Apparent Size. They Generally Proceed In This Hemisphere From North To South With Vast Velocity, Frequently Breaking Into ...

Fishery
Fishery Denotes Also The Commerce Of Fish, More Particularly The Catching Them For Sale. Were We To Enter Into A Very Minute And Particular Consideration Of Fisheries, As At Present Established In This Kingdom, This Article Would Swell Beyond Its Pro Per Bounds ; Because To Do Justice To A ...

Fishery_2
Fishery, Green Cod. The Chief Fishe Ries For Green Cod Are In The Bay Of Cana Da, On The Great Bank Of Newfoundland, And On The Isle Of St. Peter, And The Isle Of Sable, To Which Places Vessels Resort From Divers Parts, Both Of Europe And America. They Are ...

Fishery_3
Fishery, Dry Cod. The Principal Fish Ery For Dry Cod Is From Cape Rose To The Bay Des Exports, Along The Coast Of Pla Centia, In Which Compass There Are Divers Commodious Ports For The Fish To Be Dried In. These, Though Of The Same Kind With The Fresh Cod, ...

Fishery_4
Fishery, Herring. Herrings Are Chief Ly Found In The North Sea. They Are A Fish Of Passage, And Commonly Go In Shoals, Being Very Fond Of Following Fire Or Light, And In Their Passage They Re Semble A Kind Of Lightning. About The Beginning Of June, An Incredible Shoal Of ...

Fishery_5
Fishery, Salmon. The Chief Salmon Fisheries In Europe Are In England, Scot Land, And Ireland, In The Rivers And Sea Coasts Adjoining To The River Mouths. Those Most Distinguished For Salmon In Scotland Are, The River Tweed, The Clyde, The Tay, The Dee, The Don, The Spey, The Ness, The ...

Fishery_6
Fishery, Whale. Whales Are Chiefly Caught In The North Sea : The Largest Sort Are Found About Greenland Or Spitzber Gen. At The First Discovery Of This Coun Try, Whales, Not Being Used To Be Disturb Ed, Frequently Came Into The Very Bays, And Were Accordingly Killed Almost Close To ...

Fishes
Fishes. We Shall Take The Torpedo And The Carp As Examples Of The Two Chief Divi Sions Of The Class, As We Did In Speaking Of The Male Organs. In The Former Fish There Are Two Uteri, Communicating With The Cloaca By Means Of A Common Vagina. The Oviducts Form ...

Flame
Flame. Newton And Others Have Considered Flame As An Ignited Vapour, Or Red-hot Smoke. This, In A Certain Sense; May Be True, But, No Doubt, It Contains An Inaccurate Comparison. Simple Igni Tion Never Exceeds In Intensity Of Light The Body By Contact Of Which It Was Pro Duced. But ...

Flamsteed
Flamsteed (joux), In Biography, An Eminent English Astronomer, Being In Deed The First Astronomer Royal, For Whose Use The Royal Observatory Was Built At Greenwich, Thence Called Flam Steed House. He Was Born At Denby, In Derbyshire, The 19th Of August, 1646. He Was Educated At The Free School Of ...

Flannel
Flannel, A Kind Of Woollen Stuff, Composed Of A Woof And Warp, And Woven After The Manner Of Baize. Various Theo Ries Have Been Adopted To Prove The Uti Lity Of Flannel As An Article Of Dress : It Is Unquestionably A Bad Conductor Of Heat, And On That Account ...

Floating
Floating Bodies, Are Those Which Swim On The Surface Of A Fluid, The Most Interesting Of Which Are Ships And Vessels Employed In War And Commerce. It Is Known To Every Seaman, Of What Vast Mo Ment It Is To Ascertain The Stability Of Such Vessels, And The Positions They ...

Florentine
Florentine Work. When Italy, Many Years Past, Enjoyed A State Of Per Fect Tranquillity, And The Minds Of All Ranks Of The Inhabitants Were Under The Influence Of Religious Enthusiasm, The Dif Ferent Orders Of Religious, The Priests, And The Nobles, Each Endeavoured To Excel The Other In The Splendid ...

Fluid
Fluid, In Physiology, An Appellation Given To All Bodies, Whose Particles Easily Yield To The Least Partial Pressure Or Force Impressed. All Fluids, Except Those In The Form Of Air Or Gas, Are Incompressible In Any Con Siderable Degree. The Academy Del Ci Mento, From The Following Experiment, Supposed Water ...

Fluidity
Fluidity. The State Of Bodies When Their Parts Are Very Readily Moveable In All Directions With Respect To Each Other. Many Useful And Curious Properties Arise Out Of This Modification Of Matter, Which Fbrm The Basis Of The Mechanical Science Called Hydrostatics, And Are Of Considera Ble Importance In Chemistry. ...

Fluoric
Fluoric Acid, In Chemistry, Is Obtain Ed From Fluor Spar, Or, As It Is Technically Called, Fluate Of Lime. It Has Not Yet Been Decomposed, Unless It Be Among The Grand Discoveries Of Mr. Davy, Not Yet Announced To The World. We Have At Tended The Lectures Of This Professor, ...

Flux
Flux, A General Term Made Use Of To Denote Any Substance Or Mixture Added To Assist The Fusion Of Minerals In The Large Way, Limestone Or Fluor Spar Are Used As Fluxes ; But In Small Assays, The Method Of The Great Operations Is Not Always Follow Ed, Though It ...

Fluxion
Fluxion, In Mathematics, Denotes The Velocity By Which The Fluents Or Flow Ing Quantities Increase Or Decrease ; And May Be Considered As Positive Or Nega Tive, According As It Relates To An Incre Ment Or Decrement. The Doctrine Of Fluxions, First Invented By Sir Isaac Newton, Is Of Great ...

Flying
Flying, The Progressive Motion Of A Bird, Or Other Winged Animal, In The Li Quid Air. The Parts Of Birds Chiefly Cerned In Flying Are The Wings, By Whit% They Are Sustained Or Wafted Along. The Tail, Messeurs Willoughby, Ray, And Many Others, Imagine To Be Principally Employ Ed In ...

Foliating
Foliating Of Looking-glasses, The Spreading The Plates Over, After They Are Polished With Quicksilver, &c. In Order To Reflect The Image. It Is Performed Thus : A Thin Blotting Paper Is Spread On The Table, And Sprinkled With Fine Chalk : And Then A Fine Lamina Or Leaf Of Tin, ...

Forfeiture
Forfeiture, Is A Punishment, An Nexed By Law To Some Illegal Act Or Ne Gligence In The Owner Of Lands, Tenements, Or Hereditaments, Whereby He Loses All His Interest Therein, And They Go To The Party Injured, As A Recompense For The Wrong Which Either He Alone, Or The Public ...

Forficula
Forficula, In Natural History, The Earwig, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Coleoptera. Antenna; Setaceous ; Feelers Unequal, Filiform ; Shells Half As Long As The Abdomen; Wings Folded Up Under The Shells ; Tail Armed With A Forceps. There Are Eighteen Species Enumerated By Gme Lin, Two Of ...

Forge
Forge, Properly Signifies A Little Fur Nace, Wherein Smiths And Other Artificers Of Iron Or Steel, &c. Heat Their Metals Red Hot, In Order To Soften And Render Them More Malleable And Manageable On The Anvil. An Ordinary Forge Is Nothing But A Pair Of Bellows, The Nozzle Of Which ...

Forgery
Forgery, Is Where A Person Counter Feits The Signature Of Another, With Intent To Defraud ; Which By The Law Of England Is Made A Capital Felony. This Law Is Now Extended By Statute To The Counterfeiting Of Almost Every Written Instrument Which Is Either A Security For Money, Or ...

Formica
Formica, In Natural History, The At Or Emmet, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Hymenoptera. Feelers Four, Unequal, With Cylindrical Articulations, Placed At The Tip Of The Lip, Which Is Cylindrical And Nearly Membranaceous ; Antennae Filiform; A Small Erect Scale Between The Thorax And Abdomen ; Females And ...

Forster
Forster (jonx Recialorm,) In Bio Braphy, An Eminent Naturalist And Philo Logist, Was Born On The 22d Of October, 1729, At Derschaw, In Polish Prussia, Where His Father Was A Burgomaster. He Received Very Little Education, Except What He Acquired Himself By The Natural Strength Of His Own Genius, Till ...

Fortification
Fortification. During The Early Ages, When The Property Of Individuals Was Less Valuable, Or That, Owing To The Little Progress Made By Mankind In The Arts Of Despoliation And Of Seizing Upon The Possessions Of Their Neighbours, The Only Fences In Use Were Such As Sufficed To Restrain The Depredations ...