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Gladiators
Gladiators, Persons Who Fought For The Amusement Of The Public In The Arenas Of Amphitheatres In The City Of Rome, And At Other Places Under The Do Minion Of The Romans. The Term Is De Rived From Their Use Of The Gladius, Or Sword; And The Origin Of This Horrid ...

Glass
Glass, A Substance Too Well.known To Admit Of A Definition. It Is A Compound Of The Fixed Alkalies, Or Alkaline Earths, With Silica, Brought Into Complete Fusion, And Then Suddenly Congealed. Silica, When Mixed With The Fixed Alkalies, And Expo Sed To A Strong Heat, Readily Enters Into Fusion. In ...

Glauber John Rudolph
Glauber (john Rudolph,) An In Dustrious Chemist, Was Born In Germany. After Passing A Considerable Time In Travel, He Settled At Amsterdam, About The Middle Of The Seventeenth Century. He Wrote A Number Of Works, Mostly In Fected With The Enigmatical Jargon And Unintelligible Theory Of The Hermetic Phi Losophy, ...

Globe
Globe, A Round Or Spherical Body, More Usually Called A Sphere, Bounded By One Uniform Convex Surface, Every Point Of Which Is Equally Distant From A Point Within, Called Its Centre. Euclid Defines The Globe Or Sphere, To Be A Solid Figure Described By The Revolution Of A Semi-cir Cle ...

Globe_2
Globe, In Practical Mathematics, An Artificial Spherical Body, On The Convex Surface Of Which Are Represented The Countries, Seas, &c. Of Our Earth ; Or The Face Of The Heavens, The Circles Of The Sphere, &c. That With The Parts Of The Earth Delineated Upon Its Surface Is Called The ...

Glossary
Glossary. A Sonata Is A Piece Of Music For Instru Ments Only : These Are Now Chiefly For The Piano-torte, Either With Or Without Aecompaniments For A Flute, Or Violin, Or A Violoncello; Or, Eventually, With Nume Rous Accompaniments. . A Cantata Is A Piece Set To Words, And Is ...

Glue
Glue, Among Artificers, A Tenacious Viscid Matter, Which Serves As A Cement To Bind Or Connect Things Together. Glues Are Of Different Kinds, According To The Various Uses They Are Designed For, As The Common Glue, Glove Glue,parchment Glue, Isinglass Glue, &c. The Common Or Strong Glue Is Chiefly Used ...

Gluten
Gluten. With The Fecula And Sac Charine Matter Which Compose The Prin Cipal Part Of Nutritive Grain, Is Another Sub Stance, Approaching More Nearly In Its Cha Racters To Animal Matter Than Any Other Product Of The Vegetable System. Frqm The Resemblance In Its Properties To The Animal Principle Formerly ...

Gnomon
Gnomon, In Astronomy, A Stile Erected Perpendicular To The Horizon, In Order To Find The Altitude Of The Sun. Thus In The Right Angled Triangled A B C, Fig. 2, Are Given A B, The Length Of The Stile, B C, The Length Of Its Shadow, And The Right Angle, ...

Gobius
Gobius, The Goby, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Thoracici. Generic Character : Head Small ; Eyes Ap Proximated, With Two Punctures Between Them ; Gill Membrane, Four-rayed, Ven Tral Fins United Into A Funnel-like Oval ; Dorsal Fins Two. There Are Twenty-five Species, Of Which ...

Gold
Gold Thread, Or Spun Gold, Is A Flatted Gold, Wrapped Or Laid Over A Thread Of Silk, By Twisting It With A Wheel And Iron Bobbins. Manner Of Forming Gold Wire And Gold Thread, Both Round And Flat. First, An In. Got Of Silver, Of 24 Pounds, Is Forged Mtn ...

Gold
Gold Is A Yellow Metal, Of Much Greater Specific Gravity Than Any Other Body In Nature, Except Plating. It Is Soft, Very Tough, Ductile, And Malleable ; Unal Terable And Fixed, Whether Exposed To The Atmosphere, Or To The Strongest Heat Of Furnaces. The Most Powerful Burning Mirrors Arc Said ...

Good
Good. Can Hence See The Reason Why Many Of The Serpent Tribe Should Convert A Wholesome Nutriment Into A Venomous Secretion; Why.the Euphorbia, Or Spurge, So Noxious To Man, And Most Quadrupeds, Should Be Greedily Devoured By Several Of The Insect Tribes ; Why The Cicuta, Which Proves Poison To ...

Gothic
Gothic Style, In Architecture. The Characteristics Of This Mannner Of Building Are Pointed Arches, Greater Height Than Breadth In The Proportions, And Profuse Ornament, Chiefly Derived From An Imita Tion Of The Leaves And Flowers Of Plants. The Word Gothic, By Which It Has Long Been Distinguished In England, Has ...

Government
Government, In General, Is The Po Lity Of A State, Or An Orderly Power Con Stituted For The Public Good. Civil Government Was Instituted For The Preservation And Advancement Of Men's Civil Interests, And For The Better Securi Ty Of Their Lives, Liberties, And Proper Ties. The Use And Necessity ...

Gracula
Gracula, The Grakle, In Natural Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pica:. Generic Character: The Bill Convex, Thick, Sharp-edged, Somewhat Naked At The Base ; Nostrils Small, Near The Base Of The Bill ; Tongue Entire, Rather Sharp At The End ; Claws Hooked And Sharp. No Spe ...

Grammar 1
Grammar. 1. The Grammar Of Any Language Is A Set Of Rules And Observations, Directing To The Proper Use Of The Sorts Of Words Composing That Language. These Rules Are Founded Upon The General Usage Of Good Writers ; And After This Is Ascer Tained, It Is Customary For Those, ...

Granite
Granite, In Mineralogy, Is A Particu Lar Mountain Rock, Composed Of Felspar, Quartz, And Mica. In General The Felspar Is The Predominating Substance, And Mica The Least Considerable. In Some Varieties The Quartz Is Wanting, And In Others The Mica. The Constituent Parts Differ Like. Wise Considerably In Their Magnitude ...

Grass
Grass, In Botany. The Tribe Of Grass Es In One Of The Seven Natural Families In To Which All Vegetables Are Distributed By Linnaeus, In His " Philosophia Botanica." They Are Defined To Be Plants Which Have Very Simple Leaves, A Jointed Stem, A Husky Calyx, Named A Blume, And ...

Gravimeter
Gravimeter, The Name Given By M. Guyton To An Instrument For Measur Ing Specific Gravities : He Adopts This Name Rather Than Either Aerometer Or By Ammeter, Because These Latter Terms Are Grounded Upon The Supposition That A Fluid Is Always The Thing Weighed: Whereas With Regard To Solids, The ...

Gravity
Gravity, Specific. Boyle Is Among The First Of Our Philosophers, Who Suggested The Advantage That Chemistry And Minera Logy Might Derive From An Attention To The Specific Gravities Of Bodies. Much Advantage May Indeed Be Derived From This Property In The General Determina Tion Of The Classes Of Minerals, And ...

Gravity
Gravity, A Term Used By Physical Writers To Denote The Cause By Which All Bodies Move Toward Each Other, Unless Prevented By Some Other Force Or Obsta Cle. The Most Familiar Effect, And That Which Continually Obtrudes Itself On Our Notice, Is The Weight Of Bodies, Or Their Tendency Toward ...

Gregory
Gregory (dn. David), Savilian Profes Sor Of Astronomy, At Oxford, Was Nephew Of The Above-mentioned Mr. James Gre Gory, Being The Eldest Son Of His Brother, Mr. David Gregory Of Kinardie, A Gen Tleman Who Had The Singular Fortune To See Three Of His Sons All Professors Of Ma Thematics, ...

Gregory
Gregory (jarixs), Professor Of Ma Thematics, First In The University Of St. An Drews, And Afterwards In That Of Edin Burgh, Was One Of The Most Eminent Ma Thematicians Of The Seventeenth Century. He Was A Son Of The Rev. John Gregory, Minister Of Drumoak, In The County Of Aberdeen, ...

Grotto
Grotto, A Large Deep Cavern Or Den In A Mountain Or Rock. Okey-hole, Elden Hound, Peake's-hole, And Pool's-hole, Are Famous Among The Natural Caverns Or Grottoes Of Our Country. The Entrance To Okey.hole, On The South Side Of Mendip Hills, Is In The Fall Of Those Hills, Which Is Beset ...

Gryllus
Gryllus, In Natural History, The Lo. Cast, Grasshopper, And Cricket, A Genus Of Insects Belonging To The Order He Miptera. Generic Character : Head Inflected, Armed With Jaws, And Furnished With Feelers : An Tenna, In Most Species, Either Filiform Or Setaceous ; Wings Four, Deflex, Convolut. Ed ; Lower ...

Guard
Guard, In Fencing, Is A Posture Proper To Defend The Body From An Enemy's Sword. There Are Four General Guards Of The Sword; To Form A Perfect Idea Of Which, We Must Suppose A Cirtle Drawn On A Wall, And Divided Into Four Cardinal Points, Viz. Top And Bottom, Right ...

Guardian
Guardian By Statute, Or Testamentary Guardian. By The Common Law, No Per Son Could Appoint A Guardian, Because The Law Had Appointed One, Whether The Fa Ther Were Tenant By Knight Service, Or In Socage. The First Statute That Gave The Father A Power Of Appointing Was The 4 And ...

Guardian_2
Guardian, By Appointment Of The Lord Chancellor. It Is Not Easy To State How This Jurisdiction Was Acquired ; For It Is Certainly Of No Very Ancient Date, Though Now Indisputable ; For It Is Clearly Agreed, That The King, As Pater Patrix, Is Universal Guardian Of All Infants, Idiots, ...

Guglielmini
Guglielmini (donouvic), An Eminent Italian Mathematician And Civil Engineer, Was Descended From An Honourable Fami Ly, And Born At Bologna In The Year 1655. His Favourite Studies Were The Mathema Tics And Medicine, In The Former Of Which He Had For Tutor The Celebrated M. Germ. Montanari ; And In ...

Gulfs
Gulfs, In Heraldry, Signifies The Co Lour Red, Which Is Expressed In Engraving By Perpendicular Lines Falling From The Top Of The Escutcheon To The Bottom. Gum, A Thick Transparent Tasteless Fluid, Which Exudes Occasionally From Certain Species Of Trees.. It Is Adhesive, And Gradually Hardens Without Losing Its Transparency. ...

Gunpowder
Gunpowder, A Composition Of Nitre, Sulphur, And Charcoal, Mixed Together, And Usually Granulated. This Easily Takes Fire, And When Fired It Rarifies Or Expands With Great Vehemence, By Means Of Its Elastic Force. It Is To This Powder That We Owe All The Effect And Action Of Guns, And Ordnance ...

Gunter
Gunter (emiumii,) An English Ma Thematician Of The Seventeenth Century, Was Descended From Mn Ancient And Re Spectable Family In Brecknocshire, South Wales, And Was Born In The County Of Herefordshire In The Year 1580. He Re Ceived His Classical Education On The Royal Foundation At Westminster School,whence He Was ...

Gunter_2
Gunter S Scale, Usually Called By Sea Men The Gunter, Is A Large Plain Scale, Having Various Lines Upon It, Of Great Use In Working The Cases Or Questions In Na Vigation. This Scale Is Usually Two Feet Long, And About An Inch And A Half Broad, With Various Lines ...

Gunters
Gunter's Line, A Logarithmic Line, Tint, Ally Graduated Upon Scales, Sectors, &c. It Is Also Called The Line Of Lines And Line Of Numbers ; Being Only The Logarithms Graduated Upon A Ruler, Which Therefore Serves To Solve Problems Instrumentally, In The Same Manner As Logarithms Do Arithmetically. It Is ...

Gymnastics
Gymnastics. This Word, Derived From The Greek, Comprehends All Those Athletic Exercises By Which The Ancients Rendered The Body Pliant And Healthy, And Enabled The Muscles To Do Their Of Fices With Treble Effect. The Variety Of Methods Contrived For This Purpose Was Very Numerous, And The Ardour With Which ...

Gymnotits
Gymnotits, The Gymnote, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Or The Order Apodes. Generic Character : The Head With Lateral Opercula ; Two Teniac-ula On The Upper Lip ; Eyes Covered By The Com Mon Skin ; Gill.membrane Five-rayed ; Sly Compressed, Generally Without A Dor Sal Fin, But ...

Gyrinus
Gyrinus, In Natural History, Water Flea, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Cole Optera. Antenna: Cylindrical ; Jaws Horny, One-toothed, Sharp-pointed ; Eyes Four, Two Above And Two Beneath ; Thorax And Shells Margined, The Latter Shorter Than The Body ; Legs Formed For Swimming. The Insects Of This ...

Habeas
Habeas Corpus, A Writ Of Various Uses, And Of Different Imp6rtance. It Was Ori Ginally A Writ, Which A Man Indicted Of A Trespass Before Justices Of The Peace, Or In A Court Of Franchise, And Being Ap Prehended For It, May Have Out Of The King's Bench, To Remove ...

Hail
Hail, In Natural History, A Meteor Ge Nerally Defined Frozen Rain, But Differing From It, In That The Hailstones Are Not Form Ed Of Single Pieces Of Ice, But Of Many Lit Tle Spherules Agglutinated Together ; Nei Ther Are These Spherules All Of The Same Consistence; Some Of Them ...

Hair
Hair, Small Filaments Issuing Out Of The Pores Of The Skins Of Animals, And Serving Most Of Them As A Tegument Or Covering. In Lieu Of Hair, The Nakedness Of Some Animals Is Covered With Feathers, Wool, Scales, &c. Hair Is Found On All Parts Of The Human Body, Except ...

Hales
Hales, (stspimit,) 11 D. In Biogra Phy, An Eminent Natural Philosopher And Excellent Parish Clergyman, Was Sixth Son Of Thomas Hales, Esq. Of Beckesbourn, In Kent, Where He Was Born In 1677. At The Age Of Nineteen He Was Entered A Pensioner Of Bene't College, Cambridge, Of Which He Was ...

Harmonical
Harmonical Proportion Or Musical Pro Portion, Is That In Which The First Term Is To The Third, As The Difference Of The First And Second Is To The Difference Of The Se Cond And Third ; Or When The First, The Third, And The Said Two Differences, Are In Geometrical ...

Hasselquistia
Hasselquistia, In Botany, So Nam Ed, In Memory Of Frederick Hasselquist, M. D. A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Umbel Latx. Essential Character : Corolla Radia Ted In The Disk, Male : Seeds In The Cir Cumference Double, With A Notched Edge; In The ...

Hazard
Hazard, A Game On Dice, Without Ta Bles. It Is Played With Only Two Dice ; And As Many May Play At It As Can Stand Round The Largest Round Table. Two Things Are Chiefly To Be Observed, Viz. Main And Chance ; The Latter Belong Ing To The Caster, ...

Heat
Heat. The Laws, According To Which The Temperature Of Bodies Is Subject To Increase Or Diminution, Have Been Dis Cussed In The Articles Caloric, Capacity, Cold, Combustion, And Chemistry. In The First Of These Articles, Caloric Was Con Sidered As A Substance Capable Of Passing From Body To Body, And ...

Hederacex
Hederacex, In Botany, The Name Of The Forty-sixth Order Of Linnmus's " Frag Ments Of A Natural Method," Consisting Of The Ivy, Vine, And A Few Other Genera, Which, From Their General Habit And Ap Pearance, Seem Nearly Allied. This Or Der Consists Of Herbaceous And Shrubby Plants, Most Of ...

Heir
Heir Apparent. No Person Can Be Heir In Fact Until The Death Of His Ancestor ; Yet He Who Stands Nearest In Degree Of Kin Dred To The Ancestor Is Called, Even In His Life-time, Heir Apparent. And The Law Takes Notice Of An Heir Apparent, So Far As To ...

Helenium
Helenium, In Botany, A Genus Of The Syngenesia Polygamia Supergua Class And Order. Natural Order Of Composite; Discoidex. Corymbiferx, Jussieu. There Are Two Species. These Plants Are Na Tives Of America, Where They Grow Wild, In Great Plenty, In The Woods And Other Shady Places Where The Ground Is Moist. ...

Heliometer
Heliometer, The Name Of An Instru Ment For Measuring With Particular Exact Ness The Diameters Of The Heavenly Bodies, And Especially Those Of The Sun And Moon. This Instrument Is A Kind Of Telescope, Consisting Of Two Object-glasses Of Equal Focal Distance, Placed One Of Them By The Side Of ...

Helix
Helix, In Geometry, The Same With Spiral, Which See. Helix, In Natural History, The Mail, A Genus Of The Vermes Testacea Class And Order. Animal A Limax ; Shell Univalve, Subdiaplianous, Brittle ; Aperture Contracted, Semi-lunar Or Roundish. Of This Genus More Than Three Hundred Spe Cies Have Been Enumerated ...

Helm
Helm, In Naval Architecture, A Lone And Flat Piecenf Timber, Or An Assemblage Of Several Pieces, Suspended Along The Hind Part Of A Ship's Stern.post, Where It Turns Upon Hinges To The Right Or Left, Serving To Direct The Course Of The Vessel, As The Tail Of A Fish Guides ...

Hemerobius
Hemerobius, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Neuroptera. Mouth With A Short Horny Mandible, The Jaws Cylindrical,istraight, Cleft ; Feelers Sour, Unequal, Filiform ; Wings Deflected, Not Folded ; Antenna Setaceous, Project Ing, Longer Than The Thorax, Which Is Con Vex. There Are Nearly Forty Species, ...

Hemp
Hemp. See Cannabis. The Cannabis Stativa, Or Hemp-plant, Is Cultivated On Account Of Its External Fila Ments, Which Constitute The Hemp Used For Cordage, Canvass, Cloth, &c. And The Seeds Abound With Oil. This Plant Is An Nual ; It Rises Quick Into A Tall Slender Sort Of Shrub ; ...

Henry Gellibrand
Gellibrand, Henry)( An Industri Ous English Mathematician And Astrono Mer, Was Born At London In The Year 1597. When He Was Eighteen Years Of Age He Was Admitted A Commoner Of Trinity College, In The University Of Ox Ford, Where, In The Year 1619, He Took His Degree Of B. ...

Henry Oldenburg
Oldenburg, (henry), In Biogra Phy, Who Wrote His Name Sometimes Grubendol, Reversing The Letters, Was A Learned German Gentleman, And Born In The Duchy Of Bremen, In Lower Saxony, About The Year 1626, Being Descended From The Counts Of Aldenburg In West Phalia: Whence His Name. During The Long English ...

Hepatic Affection
Hepatic Affection, Catenating With Afo Fection Of The Stomach, And Produced By Hot Climates Or Hard Drinking. We Have Already Sufficiently Comment Ed Upon The General Nature Of The Bile, And The Importance Of Its Due And Wealthy Floe Towards The Proper Action Of The Stomach, And The Whole Of ...

Heraldric Achievement
Heraldric Achievement, In Blazonry, An Armorial Bearing Or Device, Formed Ac Cording To The Rules Of Heraldry, Common Ly Called Coat Of Arms. These Armorial Bearings Appertain To Families And Nations. The Arms Belonging To The United States, Adopted After The Declaration Of Indepen Dence, And In Use To The ...

Heraldry
Heraldry. We Shall Commence This Article With Some Account Of The Great And Important Services Of The Heralds In Former Times, How Ancient Heraldry Hath Been Their Employments In War And Peace, And In Proclaiming And Publishing Weighty Affairs. As For Their Antiquity, They Were In Re Quest Among The ...

Hermaphrodite
Hermaphrodite, A Term Formerly Applied Exclusively To Signify A Human Creature Possessed Of Both Sexes. The Term Is Now Applied To Other Animals, And To Plants. It Is Now Well Known There Is No Such Thing As An Hermaphrodite In The Human Species. In Most Species Of Ani Mal.% The ...

Hester
Hester, A Genus Of Insects Of The Or Der Coleoptera. Antennae Clavate, The Club Solid; The Last Joint Compressed, Decur Yed ; Head Retractile Within The Body ; Mouth Forcipated ; Shells Shorter Than The Body, Truncate ; Fore-shanks Toothed, Hind-shanks Spinous. There Are Twenty Four Species, Usually Found In ...

Hide
Hide. See Cutis. Hum Hides Are The Skins Of Beasts But The Denomination Is Particularly Ap Plied To Those Of Large Cattle, As Bullosks, Cows, Buffaloes, Horses, &c. Raw Hides Are Still A Consjderable Object In The Egyp Tian Trade : About 80,000 Hides Of Buffa Toes, Camels, Cows, And ...

Highway
Highway, A Public Passage For The King's People ; Whence It Is Called The King's Highway. It Seems That Anciently There Were But Four Highways In England Which Were Free And Common To All The King's Subjects, And Through Which They Might Pass Without Any Toll, Unless There Were A ...

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Bel Lux. Generic Character : Four Front Teeth In Each Jaw ; The Upper Ones Distant, In Pairs ; The Lower Ones Prominent ; The Two Intermediate Ones Longest ; Tusks"soli Tary Those Of The Lower Jaw Very Large, ...

Hirudo
Hirudo, The Leech, In Natural History, A Genus Of The Vermes Intestina Class And Order. Body Truncated At Both Ends, Ob Long, Unarmed, Moves Onward By Elongat Ing The Body, And Then Contracting Itself Into An Argil, Adhering Alternately By The Head And Tail. The Body Moves Either Forward Or ...

Hirundo
Hirundo, The Au, Allow, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pas Sere S. Generic Character : Bill Short, De Pressed At The Base, Small At The Point, And A Little Bending ; Nostrils Open ; Tongue Short, Broad And Cleft ; Wings Long ; Legs ...

History
History Is A Connected Recital Of Past Or Present Events. If The Value Of Each Department Of Knowledge Is To Be Ascertained By The Esteem In Which It Is Held By The Gene Rality Of Readers, A Place Of Distinguished Honour Must Be Assigned To History. Gra Tifying That Curiosity, ...