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Holcus
Holcus, In Botany, A Genus Of The Polygamia Monoecia Class And Order. Na Tural Order Of Gramina Or Grasses. Es. Sential Character:. Hermaphrodite, Calyx Glume, One Or Two-flowered : Corolla Glume, Awned; Stamina Three ; Styles Two : Seed One : Male, Calyx Glume, Two Valved ; Corolla None; Stamina ...

Holothuria
Holothuria, In Natural History, A Genus Of The Vermes Mollusca Class And Order. Body Detached, Cylindrical, Thick, Naked, And Open At The Extremity ; Mouth Surrounded By Fleshy Branched Tentacula Or Feelers. These Are All Inhabitants Of The Sea, And Expand Or Contract Them Selves At Pleaiure ; The Anterior ...

Homet Is His Prophet
Homet Is His Prophet. Under These Two Propositions Are Comprehended Six Distinct Branches : Viz. Belief In God; In His Angels ; In His Scriptures; In His Pro Phets; In The Resurrection And Judgment ; And In God's Absolute Decrees, Or Pre Destination. They Reckon Five Points Re Lating To ...

Homicide
Homicide, Manslaughter, Against The Life Of Another, Is Either With Or Without Ma Lice; That Which Is Without Malice Is Call Ed Manslaughter, Or Sometimes Chance Medley, Or Chaud-medly, By Which Is Un Detntood Such Killing As Happens Either On A Sulden Quarrel; Or In The Commission Of An Unlawful ...

Honey
Honey, A Vegetable Product, Very Si Milar In Its Properties To Sugar. It Is Found In Large Quantities In A Number Of Vegetables, Is Collected By The Bee, And Is Fed Upon By Many Insects. It Is Always Formed In The Flower, Chiefly At The Base Of The Pistil, And ...

Honey_2
Honey Comb, A Waxen Structure Full Of Cells, Frafned By The Bees, To Deposit Their Honey And Eggs In. The Construction Of The Honey-comb Seems One Of The Most Surprising Part Of The Works Of•insects, And The Materials Of Which It Is Composed, Which, Though Evidently Collected From The Flowers ...

Hopea
Hopea, In Botany, So Named In Ho Nour Of Dr. Hope,. Professor Of Botany At Edinburgh, A Genus Of The Polyadelphia Polyandria Class And Order. Natural Or Der Of Guaiabanw, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five-cleft, Superior ; Co Rolla Five-petalled ; Stamens Many, Con Nected In Five Bodies; Style ...

Hordeds
Horded's!, In Botany, Barley, A Genus Of The Triandria Digynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Grasses. Essential Cha Racter: Calyx Lateral, Two-valved, One-flow. Erect, By Threes, At Each Toothlet Of The Rachis. There Are Nine Specks. In Astronomy And Geogra Phy, That Great Circle Which Divides The Heavens And ...

Horizontal
Horizontal Range, Of A Piece Of Ord Nance, Is The Distance At Which A Ball Falls On, Or Strikes A Horizontal Plane, Whatever Be The Angle Of Elevation Or Direction Of The"piec'e. When The Piece Is Pointed Pa Rallel- To The Horizon, The Range Is Then Called The Point-blank, Or ...

Horn
Horn, In Physiology, A Tough, Flexible, Semitransparent Substance, Intended For The Defence Or Covering Of Animals. The Hollow Horns Of The Ox, Goat, Fac.: The Hoof, The Horny Claw And Nail,'and The Scale Of Certain Insects, As The Shell Of The Tortoise, Resemble Each Other In Chemi Cal Characters; But ...

Horn_2
Horn Stone, Or Horn Steen, In Minera Logy, A Species Of The Flint Genus, Divided By Werner Into Three Subspecies: The Splintery, The Conchoidal, And The Wood Stone. The Most Common Colour Of The Splintery Horn Stone Is Gray; It Is Found In Veins, In The Shape Of Balls, In ...

Hornblende
Hornblende, In Mineralogy, A Spe Cks Of The Clay Genus, Of Which Them Are Four Subspecies; Viz. The Common I The Labrador, The Basaltic, And The Horn Blende Slate. The Common Hornblende Is Of A Greenish Black, Or Raven-black, Which In Some Varieties Approaches To A Greyish And Even Velvet ...

Horology
Horology. Horology Is That Branch Of Science Which Enables Us To Measure The Portions Of Time. We Judge Of The Lapse Of Time By The Succession Of Sensi Ble Events ; And The Most Convenient And Accurate Measures Of Its Quantity Are De Rived From Motions, Either Uniform, Or Else ...

Horses
Horses. It Shall Be Lawful For Any Per Son, Native Or Foreigner, At Anytime, To Ship, Lade, And Transport, By Way Of Mer Chandize, Horses Into Any, Arts Beyond The Seas, In Amity With His Majesty, Paying For Each Horse, Mare, Or Gelding, 5s. And No More. • No Person ...

Hortus
Hortus Siccus, A Dry Garden, An Ap Pellation Given To A Collection Of Speci Mens Of Plants, Carefully Dried And Pre Served. The Value Of Such A Collection Is 'very Evident, Since A Thousand Minutia: May Be Preserved In The Well-dried Spe Cimens Of Plants; Which The Most Accurate Engraver ...

Hospital
Hospital, Pennsylvania. This Is One Of The Best Organized Institutions In The United States. The Following Account Of It, Together With Hints For Amending Its Police, Is Extracted From A Work, Entitled " A Treatise, Containing A Plan For The Internal Organization And Government Of Marine Hospitals, In The United ...

Hour
Hour, Hora, In Chronology, An Aliquot Part Of A Natural Day, Usually A Twenty Fourth, Sometimes A Twelfth. But The Word Hour Has Not Always Been Of The Same Signification; For In Ancient Times An Hour Did Indefinitely Express A Short Space Of Time. It Is Thought Too, That Anciently ...

House
House, In Astrology, Denotes The Twelfth Part Of The Heavens. The Division Of The Heavens Into Houses Is Founded Up On The Pretended Influence Of The Stars, When Meeting In Them, On All Sublunary Bodies. These Influences Are Supposed To Be Good Or Bad, And To Each Of These Houses ...

Hovering
Hovering, In Law : Ships Of Fifty Tons, Laden With Customable Or Prohibited Goods, Hovering On The Coasts Of This Kingdom, Within The Limits Of Any Port (and Not Proceeding From Foreign Parts) May Be Entered By Officers Of The Cus Toms, Who Are To Take An Account Of The ...

Hudsonia
Hudsonia, In Botany, From William Hudson, A Genus Of The Dodecandria Mo Nogynia Class And Order. Natufal Order Of Bicornes. Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five Leaved, Tubular ; Co Rolla None ; Stamens Fifteen ; Capsule One Celled, Three Valved, Three Seeded. There Is Only One Species, Viz. H. ...

Huguenots
Huguenots, A Term Of Contempt, First Given To The French Protestants In The Year 1560. The Origin Of This Term Is Much Involved In Obscurity; And Various Attempts Have Been Made To Account For It, And For Its Application To The Friends Of The Reformed Church In France. Some Suppose ...

Hurdles
Hurdles, In Husbandry, Certain Frames, Made Either Of Split Timber, Or Of Rods Wattled Together, To Serve For Gates In Inclosures, Or To Make Sheep-folds. &c. Hurricane, A Furious Storm Of Wind, Owing To A Contrariety Of Winds. See Article Wind And Whirlwind. Hurricanes Are Frequent In The West Dies, ...

Husband
Husband And Wife, Usually Termed Baron And Feme, Are One Person In Law ; That Is, The Very Being Or Legal Existence Of The Woman Is Suspended During The Marriage ; Or, At Least, Is Incorporated And Consolidated Into That Of The Husband, Under Whose Wing, Protection, And Cover, She ...

Hydra
Hydra, Polypes, In Natural History, A Genus Of The Vermes Zoophyta Class And Order. Animal Fixing Itself By The Base, Linear, Gelatinous, Naked, Contractile, And Furnished With Setaceous Tentacula Or Feelers; Inhabiting Fresh Waters, And Pro Ducing Its Deciduous Offspring Or Eggs From The Sides. There Are Five Species. H. ...

Hydraulics
Hydraulics Teach Us To Ascertain The Velocity And Impetus Of Fluids When In Motion, And Serves As The Basis For Com Puting The Powers Of Various Machinery Acted Upon By Running Water. The First Principle We Shall Inculcate In This Service Is, That Water, Being An In Elastic Fluid, (though ...

Hydraulics Engine
Engine, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, &c. &c. The Modes Of Applying Mechanical Forces Are Almost As Various As The Ma Chines That Are Constructed, And The Pur Poses For Which They Are Employed. In General The Human Strength Is Applied By Means Of Levers, Or Winches, Or By Walk Ing Wheels, Which ...

Hydrogen
Hydrogen. It Had Been Long Known To The Chemists, That A Vapour Or Air Is Disengaged In Some Processes, Which Kindled On The Approach Of An Ignited Body. Van Helmont Gave This The Name Of Gas Igneum, And It Seems To Have At Tracted The Attention Of Boyle, Mayow, And ...

Hydrometer
Hydrometer. The Best Method Of Weighing Equal Quantities Of Corrosive Vo Latile Fluids, To Determine Their Specific Gravities, Appears To Consist In Inclosing Them In A Bottle With A Conical Stopper, In The Side Of Which Stopper A Fine Mark Is Cut With A File. The Fluid Being Poured Into ...

Hydrophilus
Hydrophilus, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Coleoptera. Antenna Clavate, The Club Perfoliate ; Feelers Four, Filiform ; The Hind Legs Are Formed For S*imming, Fringed On The In Ner Side, And Nearly Unarmed With Claws. The Insects Of This Genus, Like Those Of The Which ...

Hydrostatics
Hydrostatics Relate To The Resting Equilibrium Of Non-elastic Fluids; And To The Pressure Of Solids Immersed Therein. A Fluid Is A Body Whose Parts, Are Infinite Ly Minute, Capable Of Dislocation In Con Sequence Of The Smallest Force, Invariably (when Suffered To Rest) Resuming A Per Fect Level Surface, And ...

Hygrometer
Hygrometer, A Machine Or Instru Ment To Measure The Degrees Of Dryness Or Moisture Of The Atmosphere. There Are Divers Sorts Of Hygrometers; For Whatever Body Either Swells Or Shrinks By Dryness Or Moisture Is Capable Of Be Ing Formed Into An Hygrometer. Such Are Woods Of Most Kinds, Particularly ...

Hyperbola
Hyperbola, In Geometry, The Sec Tion, Geh, (plate V11. Miscel.,fig. 5) Of A Cone, Abc, Made By A Plane, So That The Axis, Ef, Of The Section Inclines To The Op Posite Leg Of The Cone, Bc, Which, In The Parabola, Is Parallel To It, And In The Ellip Sis ...

Hyrax
Hyrax, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Glires. Generic Character: Front Teeth In The Upper Jaw Two, Broad And Somewhat Distant; In The Lower Jaw Four, Broad, Flat, Contiguous, And Notched; Grinders Large, Four On , Each Side In Both Jaws ; Fore-feet Four Toed, Hind ...

Hysterics
Hysterics. See Mzurcisx. , Hystrix,porcume, In Natural History, A Genus Of Quadrupeds Of The Order Glires. Generic Character : Two Fore Teeth In The Upper And The Under Jaw, Eut Obliquely ; Eight Grinders : Body With Spines And Hair; Toes Four Or Five On The Fore Feet. There Are ...

Ichneumon
Ichneumon, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Hymenoptera Or Der : Mouth With A Straight Horny Mem Branaceous Bifid Jaw, The Tip Rounded And Ciliate ; Mandibles Curved Sharp ; Lip Cy Lindrical, Membranaceous At The Tip, And Emarg-inate ; Feelers Four, Unequal, Fili. Form, Seated In ...

Ichthyology
Ichthyology, Is That Part Of Natu Ral Treats Of Fishes. And Fish . Es Are Animals A Heart With One Auricle And One Ventricle, With Cold Red Blood, Which Inhabit Water, And Breathe I By Means Of Gills. Most Of The Species Are Likewise Distinguished By Fins And Scales. Different ...

Identity
Identity, Denotes That By Which A Thing Is Itself; And Not Any Thing Else ; In Which Sense, Identity Differs From Simili Tude As Well As Diversity. The Idea Of Identity We Owe To That Power Which The Mind Has Of Comparing The Very Being And Existence Of Things,w Hereby, ...

Idiots
Idiots, In Law. An Idiot Is A Fool Or Madman From His Nativity, And One Who Never Has Any Lucid Intervals. The King Has The Protection Of Him And His Estate, During His Life, Without Rendering Any Ac Count;because It Cannot Be Presumed That He Will Ever Be Capable Of' ...

Ignition
Ignition, In Chemistry, Is That Illumi Nation, Or Emission Of Light, Produced In Bodies By Exposing Them To A High Tem Perature, And Which Is Not Accompanied By Any Other Chemical Change In Them. It May Be Distinguished From Combustion, A Process In Which There Is Also The Emis Sion ...

Iiippobosca
Iiippobosca, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Diptera. Mouth With A Short Cylindrical, Straight, Two-valved Sucker; The Valves Are Equal ; Antennae Filiform ; Feet Armed With Nume Rous Claws ; Body Flat And Hard; Stemma. To None. There Are Five Species, Of Which The Most ...

Illuminating
Illuminating, A Kind Of Miniature Painting, Anciently Much Practised For Illustrating And Adorning Books. Besides The Writers Of Books, There Were Artists, Whose Profession Was To Ornament And Paint Manuscripts, Who Were Called Illu Minators; The Writers Of Books First Finish Ed Their Part, And The Illuminators Embel Lished Them ...

Imagination Or Fancy 127
Imagination Or Fancy 127. In The Use Which Mr. Stewart Makes Of The Term Imagination, It In Cludes The Fancy, And Is In No Respect A Distinct Power, As He Himself States, But Compounded Of Several Others. "it In Cludes," He Says, " Conception Or Simple Apprehension, Which Enables Us ...

Impatiens
Impatiens, In Botany, A Genus Of The Syngenesia Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Corydales. Gerania, Jus Sieu. Essential Character ; Calyx Two Leaved : Corolla Five-petalled, Irregular, With A Cow.f.ed Nectary ; Capsule Superior, Five-valved. There Are Twelve Species, Of Which I. Balsamina, Garden Balsam, Is An Annual ...

Impletion Of The Stomach
Impletion Of The Stomach. This Disease Is Of Two Kinds : The One From Temporary Satiety, Which Is Easily Removed By Emetics And Purgatives; But Which, From Not Being Removed In Due Time, Not 'infrequently Produces Stupor Chiefly Belongs To Our Present Considera Tion, From Habitual Abstinence, From Ex Ercise, ...

Importation
Importation, The Act Of Bringing Goods Into A Country From Foreign Parts. It Has Generally Been Considered, That For Any Country To Carry On A Profitable Trade, It Is Necessary That The Value Of The Goods Sent Out Of It Should Be Greater Than That Of The Articles Imported: This, ...

Impossible
Impossible Roots, In Algebra. To Discover How Many Impossible Roots Are Contained In Any Proposed Equation, Sir Isaac Newton Gave This Rule In His Alge Bra, Viz. Constitute A Series Of Fractions, Whose Denominators Are The Series Of Na Tural Numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. Continued To The ...

Impressing
Impressing Men. The Power Of Impressing Seamen For The Sea-service, By The King's Commission, Has Been A Matter Of Some Dispute, And Submitted To ' With Great Reluctance, Though It Has Very Clearly And Learnedly Been Shown By Sir Michael Foster, That The Practice Of Im Pressing, And Granting Power ...

Inarciiing
Inarciiing, In Gardening, Is A Me. Thod Of Grafting, Commonly Called Graft Ing By Approach, And Is Used When The Stock Intended To Graft On, And The Tree From Which The Graft Is To Be Taken, Stand So Near, Or Can He Brought So Near, That They May Be Joined ...

Income
Income Tax, A Direct Contribution Of A Certain Proportion Of The Annual Gains Of Individuals For The Public Service, Which Has Recently Become An Important Branch Of The Revenue Of Great Britain. An At Tempt Was Made In 1702 To Levy A Tax Of This Description ; But It Proved ...

Increment
Increment, Is The Small Increase Of A Variable Quantity. Sir Isaac Newton Calls These Increases" Moments," And Ob Serves, Tkat They Are Proportional To The Velocity Or Rate Of Increase Of The Flowing Or Variable Quantities, In An Indefinitely Small Time. The Notation Of Increment Is Different By Different Authors. ...

Indeterminate
Indeterminate Problem, Is That Which Admits Of Many Different Solutions And An. Swers, Called Also An Unlimited Problem. In Questions Of This Kind, The Number Of Unknown Quantities Concerned Is Greater Than The Number Of The Conditions And Equations By Which They Are To Be Found; From Which It Happens, ...

Indictment
Indictment, Is A Written Accusation Of One —lore Persons, Of A Crime Or Mis Demea Nreg-rred To, And Presented On Oath O -.a Jury. An Indictment May Be Found On The Oath Of One Witness Only, Unless It Be For High Treason, Which Requires Two Witnesses ; And Unless In ...

Indigo
Indigo, A Dye Prepared From The Leaves And Small Branches Of The Indigofe Ra Tinctoria. See The Next Article. Indigo Is Distinguished Into Two Kinds, The True And The Bastard. Though The First Is Sold At A Higher Price On Account Of Its Superiority, It Is Usually Advantageous To Cultivate ...

Indivisible
Indivisible% In Geometry, The Ele Ments Or Principles Into Which Any Body Or Figure May Be Ultimately Resolved Which Elements Are Supposed Infinitely Small : Thus A Line May Be Said To Consist Of Points, A Surface Of Parallel Lines, And A Solid Of Parallel And Similar Surfaces ; And ...

Inertia
Inertia Of Matter, In Philosophy, Is Defined By Sir Isaac Newton To Be A Pas Sive Principle, By Which Bodies Persist In A State Of Motion Or Rest, Receive Motion In Proportion To The Force Impressing It, And Resist As Much As They Are Resisted. It Is Also Defined By ...

Infancy
Infancy, The First Stage Of Life. In A Medical And Political View, Extending From Birth To About The Seventh Year. Like Every Other Stage Of Life, It Is Subject To Its Peculiar Diseases, Even In The Healthi Est State Of The Constitution, And Under The Best And Most Natural Control. ...

Infant
Infant. From The Observations Daily Made On The Actions Of Infants, As To Their Arriving At Discretion, The Law And Customs Of Every Country Have Fixed Upon Parti Cular Periods, On Which They Are Pre Sumed Capable Of Acting With Reason And Discretion ; In Our Law The Full Age ...

Infinite
Infinite Quantities. The Very Idea Of Magnitudes Infinitely Great, Or Such As Ex Ceed Any Assignable Quantities, Does In Clude A Negation Of Limits: Yet, If We Nearly Examine This Notion, We Shall Find That Such Magnitudes Are Not Equal Among Themselves, But That There Are Really, Be Sides Infinite ...

Infinitesimals
Infinitesimals, Among Mathema Ticians, Are Defined To Be Infinitely Small Quantities. In The Method Of Infinitesi Mals, The Element, By Which Any Quantity Increases Or Decreases, Is Supposed To Be Infinitely Small, And Is Generally Express Ed By Two Or More Terms, Some Of Which Are Infinitely Less Than The ...