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Longitude
Longitude, In Navigation, The Distance Of A Ship Or Place, East Or West, From An Other, Reckoned In Degrees Of The Equa Tor. As The Discovery Of A Method To Find The Longitude Would Render Voyages Safe And Expeditious, And Also Preserve Ships And The Lives Of Men, The Following ...

Lottery
Lottery, A Game Of Hazard, In Which Small Sums Are Adventured For The Chance Of Obtaining A Larger Value, Either In Mo Ney Or Other Articles. Lotteries Are Form Ed On Various Plans ; But In General They Consist Of A Certain Number Of Tickets, Which Are Drawn At The ...

Lumbricus
Lumbricus, In Natural History, The Earth-worm, A Genus Of The Vermes Bites Tina : Body Round, Annulate, With General Ly An Elevated Fleshy Belt Near The Head, Mostly Rough, With Minute Concealed Prickles, Placed Longitudinally, And Fur Nished With A Lateral Aperture. Gmelin Has Enumerated Sixteen Species, Of Which We ...

Lunation
Lunation, The Period Or Time He, Tween One New Moon And Another : It Is Also Called The Synodical Month, Consist Ing Of 29d .12h 44' 3" 11-3ds; Exceeding The Periodical Month By 2d 5h 0' 55". Lune, In Mathematics, Is A Geometri Ral Figure, In Form Of A Crescent, ...

Lutherans
Lutherans, So Called From Their Founder, Martin Luther, An Augustine Friar, And One Of The Earliest Of The Re Formers. Some Of The Doctrines Of The Lutherans, As They Were Originally Taught By Their Founder, Seem To Have Dif Fered In But A Very Slight Degree From Those Of The ...

Lutra
Lutra, The Otter, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia Of The Order Perm. Generic Character : Six Cutting Teeth Ra Ther Sharp ; Canine Teeth Longer ; Feet Webbed. There Are Eight Species, Of Which We Shall Notice Only The Following. L. Vulgaries, Is Met With In Almost All ...

Lyons
Lyons (isaael), A Good Mathemati Cian And Botanist, Was The Son Of A Polish Jew, Silversmith, And Teacher Of Hebrew At Cambridge, In England, Where He Was Come To Settle, And Where Young Lyons Was Born, 1739. He Was A Very Extraor Dinary Young Man For Parts And Ingenui Ty ...

Lyric
Lyric, In General, Signifies Something Sung Or Played On The Lyre ; But It Is More Particularly Applied To The Ancient Odes And Stanzas, Answering To Our Airs And Songs, And May Be Played On Instruments. This Species Of Poetry Was Originally Em Ployed In Celebrating The Praises Of Gods ...

Machine
Machine, In General, Whatever Hath Force Sufficient To Raise Or Stop The Motion_ Of A Heavy Body. Machines Are Either Simple Or Com Pound: The Simple Ones Are The Seven Mechanical Powers, Viz. Lever, Balance, Gully, Axis And Wheel, Wedge, Screw, And Inclined Plane. From These The Compound Ones Are ...

Machine
Machine, Electric. The Electric Ma Chine Consists Of Three Parts, The Electric Body, Which Is Rubbed ; The Rubber, Which Is A Compounded Conductor ; And The Prime Conductor, Which Is Destined To Re Ceive And Convey The Electricity, In Mak Iog Experiments. The First Electrical Ap Paratus Consisted Of ...

Maclaurin
Maclaurin (co /./ No In Biography, A Most Eminent Mathematician And Phi Losopher, Was The Son Of A Clergyman, And Born At Kilmoddan In Scotland, In The Year 1698. Ile Was Sent To The University Of Glasgow In 17v9; Where Lie Continued Five Years, And Applied To His Studies In ...

Macropus
Macropus, The Kanguroo, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia Of The Order Perx. Generic Character : Six Front Teeth In The Upper Jaw, Emarginated ; Two In The Lower, And Very Long, Sharp, Large, And Pointing Forwards; Five Grinders On Each Side Of The Upper And Under Jaw, Distant ...

Macula
Macula:, In Astronomy, Dark Spots Appearing On The Luminous Faces Of The Sun, Moon, And Even Some Of The Planets ; In Which Sense They Stand Contradistin Guished From Faculx. See Facut7e. These Spots Are Most Numerous And Easily Observed In The Sun. It Is Not Un Common To See ...

Madder
Madder Is A Plant, With Rough Nar Row Leaves, Set In Form Of A Star, At The Joints Of The Stalk. The Root, Which Is The Only Part Made Use Of, Is Long, Slender, Of A Red Colour, Both On The Outside And Within, Excepting A Whitish Pith Which Runs ...

Magic
"magic Square, In Arithmetic, A Square Figure Made Up Of Numbers In Arithme Tical Proportion, So Disposed In Parallel And Equal Ranks, That The Sums Of Each Row, Taken Either Perpendicularly, Hori Zontally, Or Diagonally, Are Equal : Thus, Magic Squares Seem To Have Been So Called, From Their Being ...

Magnesia
Magnesia, In Chemistry, An Earth, The Properties Of Which Were Not Fully Known Till Dr. Black, About The Middle Of The Last Century, Investigated Its Na Ture. In The Pursuit, The Doctor Was Led To The Important Discovery Of The Carbo Nic Acid Gas. Magnesia Had, Before His Time, Been ...

Magnetism
Magnetism, Animal. About Thirty Years Ago, Father Ilehl, Of Vienna, Im Posed On His Countrymen, And Indeed On The Greater Part Of The Civilized World, A Pretended Mode Of Curing All Kinds Of Disease, By Means Of A Sympathetic Affection Between The Sick Person And The Operator. The Remedy Was ...

Magnetism
Magnetism, Is Supposed To Have Been First Rendered Useful About The End Of The Twelfth, Cr At Least Very Early In The Thirteenth Century, By John De Gioja, A Handicraft Of Naples, Who Noticed The Pe Culiar Attraction Of Metals, Iron In Parti Cular, Towards Certain Masses Of Rude Ore ...

Mahogany
Mahogany. The Swietenia Maha Goni, Or Mahogany Tree, Is A Native Of The Warmest Parts Of America, And Grows Also In The Island Of Cuba, Jamaica, His Paniola, And The Bahama Islands. It Abounded Formerly In The Low Lands Of Jamaica; But It Is Now Found Only On Hills, And ...

Mahonietans
Mahonietans, Believers In The Doc Trines And Divine Mission Of Mahomet, The Celebrated Warrior And Pseudo-prophet Of Arabia, Who Was Born At Mecca In The Year 571. The Father Of Mahomet Was Ab Dollech, Descended From The Korashites, Tribes Who Had Long Enjoyed The Regal Dignity In Arabia. Notwithstanding The ...

Maiden
Maiden, In Ancient English Customs, An Instrument For Beheading Criminals. Of The Use And Form Of This Instrument Mr. Pennant Gives The Following Account: "it Seems To Have Been Confuted To The Limits Of The Forest Of Hardwick, Or The Eighteen Towns And Hamlets Within Its Precincts. The Time When ...

Major
Major, In The Art Of War, The Name Of Several Officers Ofverydifferent Ranks And Functions ; As, 1. Major-general, The Next Officer To The Lieutenant-general : His Chief Business Is To Receive The Orders From The General, Or In His Absence From The Lieutenant-general Of The Day ; Which He ...

Malic
Malic Acid, In Chemistry, Was Disco Vered By Scheele About The Year 1785. It Is Found In The Juices Of A Great Many Fruits, And It Derives Its Name From The Circumstance Of Its Being Obtained In Great Abundance From The Juice Of Apples, In Which It Exists Ready Formed. ...

Malt
Malt, A Term Applied To Grain Which Has Been Made To Germinate Artificially To A Certain Extent, After Which The Process Is Stopped By The Application Of Heat. The Barley Is Steeped In Cold Water For A Period Not Less Than Forty Hours, By Which It Increases In Bulk And ...

Mamm Ea
Mamm Ea, In Botany, A Genus Of The Polygamia Monoecia, Or Dioocia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Guttiferx, Jus Sieu. Essential Character : Calyx One Leafed, Two-parted ; Corolla Four-petalled ; Berry Very Large, Four-seeded. There Is But One Species, Viz. M. Americana, Arne. Rican Inammee, Which Is A ...

Mammary
Mammary Gland, In Anatomy, Is A Glandular Substance Situated In The Breast, And Secreting The Milk. This Gland, Surrounded By Cellular And Adipous Substance, And Covered By The Common Integuments, Constitutes The Breast. It Lies On The Anterior Surface Of The Pectoralis Major Muscle. In Men, And In Young Girls, ...

Mandamus
Mandamus, Is A Writ Issuing In The King's Name, Out Of The Court Of King's Bench, And Directed To Any Person, Cor Poration, Or Inferior Court Of Judicature, Commanding Them To Do Some Particular Thing, As Appertaining To Their Office And Duty. A Writ Of Mandamus Is A High Preroga ...

Mandrake
Mandrake, A Species Of The Atropa, From Which A Reference Has Been Made, Possesses A Long Taper Root, Resembling The Parsnep : Running Three Or Four Feet Into The Ground ; Immediately From The Crown Of The Root Arises A Circle Of Leaves, At First Standing Erect, But When Grown ...

Manganese
Manganese, In Chemistry, A Sub Stance That Has Long Been Employed In The Manufacture Of Glass, On Account Of Its Property Of Depriving That Substance Of Its Colour. From Its Appearance It Was Called Black Magnesia, Or Manganese. It Was Considered As An Ore Of Iron, Because It Was Found ...

Manis
Manis, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Bruta. Generic Character : No Teeth ; Tongue Round And Extensile ; Mouth Narrowed Into A Snout ; Body Covered Above With Moveable Bony Scales. These Animals Greatly Resemble The Ant-eater, And Feed Like That Creature By Protruding Their ...

Manufacture
Manufacture. Of Cotton. To This Article We Referred From The Word Cot Ton, Having Been Deprived, By Accident, Of The Information Which We Are Now En Abled To Lay Before The Public On This In Teresting Part Of English Manufactures. We Shall Begin With The Description Of The Fabrication Of ...

Manufactures
Manufactures, May Be Defined, The Arts By Which Natural Productions Are Brought Into The State Or Form In Which They Are Consumed Or Used. The Princi Ple Manufactures Are Those Which Fabri Cate The Various Articles Of Clothing; As The Woollen-manufacture, The Leather-ma Nufacture In Part, The Cotton-manufacture, The Linen-manufacture, ...

Manure
Manure. See Acnrcuttune. Map, A Plane Figure Representing The Surface Of The Earth, Or Some Part Of It Being A Projection Of The Globular Surface Of The Earth, Exhibiting Countries, Seas, Rivers, Mountains, Cities, &c. In Their Due. Positions, Or Nearly So. Maps Are Either Universal, Or Particu Lar. Universal ...

Maple
Maple, In Botany, Is Of The Genus Acer, Which See, Of The Several Species The Most Important Is The A. Saccharinum, Or American Sugar Maple, From Which The Americans Derive Sugar In Large Quantities, By Tapping The Trees Early In The Spring, And Boiling The Juice. For This Purpose Large ...

Maraldi
Maraldi (janus Primp), In Biogra Phy, A Learned Mathematician, Astrono Mer, And Natural Philosopher, Was Born In The Year 1665, At Perinaldo, In The County Of Nice, Which Had Been Already Honoured By The Birth Of His Maternal Un Cle, The Celebrated Cassini. We Are Not Informed Where He Received ...

Marriage
Marriage, Is The Lawful Conjunction Of Man And Wife ; It Was Also Anciently Used To Denote The Interest Of Bestowing A Ward Or A Widow In Marriage. Taking Marriage In The Light Of A Civil Contract, The Law Treats It As It Does All Other Contracts : Allowing It ...

Marriage
Marriage, In Political Economy. The Reader May Find Many Curious Calculations And Remarks Relating To This Subject In Dr. Price's " Observations On Reversion Ary Payments." From A Variety Of Facts, It Appears, That Marriages, One With An Other, Do Each Produce About Four Births, Both In England And Other ...

Mars
Mars, In Astronomy, The Planet That Revolves Next Beyond The Earth In Our System, Is Of A Red Fiery Colour, And Al Ways Gives A Much Duller Light Than Ve Nus, Though Sometimes He Equals Her In Size. He Is Not Subject To The Same Limi Tation In His Motions ...

Martin
Martin (benjamix,) In Biography, Was Born In 1704, And Became One Of The Most Celebrated Mathematicians And Opti Clans Of His Lime. He First Taught A School In The Country ; But Afterwards Came Up To London, Were He Read Lectures On Ex Perimental Philosophy For Many Years, And Carried ...

Masculi
Masculi. Cal. Gluma 2-valvis. Cor. 0-s. 2-valvis. Stam. 3. And, According To Pursh: Holcus. Ca/.2-valvis. Cor. Minor: Vale. Altera Aristata. Nectar. 2-partitum. Po Lygannam Linnaeus, Willdenow, Muhlenberg, And Others, Have Thrown The Genus Holcus Into Polygamia .111omecia ; But Michaux And Pursh Have Referred It To Triandria Digy. Via, Where ...

Mast
Mast, A Long Round Piece Of Timber, Elevated Perpendicularly Upon The Keel Of A Ship, Upon Which Are Attached The Yards, The Sails, And The Rigging, In Order To Their Receiving The Wind Necessary For Naviga Tion. A Mast, According To Its Length, Is Either Formed Of One Single Piece, ...

Master
Master, Quarter. See Quarter. Masters And Servants. In Lon Don And Other Places, The Mode Of Hiring Is By What Is Commonly Called A Month's Warning, Or A Month's Wages ; That Is, The Parties Agree To Separate, On Either Of Them Giving To The Other A Month's No Tice ...

Mat Avog Mat Beat
Mat. Avog. Mat. Beat. Mat. Pat., Or, The Parent Of Augustus, The Senate, And Of Her Country ; But Tiberius Became Blas Phemous, As Far As Blasphemy Could Be Said To Exist In The Heathen Mythology, By Calling Himself The Divi Pius. How Ever Wanting These Legends And Inscrip Tions ...

Materia
Materia Medica. It Is A Subject Of Cu. Riosity Rather Than Of Use, To Enquire By What Means Mankind Are Induced, In The First In Stance,to Have Recourse To Substances,when In A State Of Disease, Which, For The Most Part, They Abhor And Fly From When In A State Of ...

Mathematics
Mathematics, Originally Signified Any Discipline Or Learning ; But, At Pre Sent, Denotes That Science Which Teaches, Or Contemplates, Whatever Is Capable Of Numbered Or Measured, In So Far As It Is Computable Or Measurable ; And, Accordingly, Is Subdivided Into, Arithmetic, Which Has Numbers For Its Object, And Geometry, ...

Matter
Matter., In Physiology, Whatever Is Extended And Capable Of Making Resist Ance : Hence, Because All Bodies, Whether Solid Or Fluid, Are Extended, And Do Re Sist, We Conclude That They Are Material, Or Made Up Of Matter. That Matter Is One And The Same Thing In All Bodies, And ...

Maupertuis Pater
Maupertuis (pater Louis Mori Ceau As), A Celebrated French Mathe Matician And Philosopher, Was Born At St. Malo In 169s, And Was There Private Ly Educated Till He Attained His Sixteenth Year, When He Was Placed Under The Celebrated Professor Of Philosophy, M. Le Blond, In The College Of La ...

Maximum
Maximum, In Mathematics, Denotes The Greatest State Or Quantity Attainable In A Given Case, Or The Greatest Value Of A Variable Quantity ; Hence It Stands Oppos Ed To The Minimum, Which Is The Least Possible Quantity In Any Case. Thus In The Expression (4.-5 X, Where A And B ...

Maximus
Maximus (tyra Us), In Biography, A Celebrated Philosopher And Elegant Writer In The Second Century, Was A Native Of Tyre, In Phwnicia, Whence He Took His Name. Suidas Says, That He Lived Under The Emperor Commodus, While Eusebius And Syncellus Place Him Under Antoninus Pius. If We Suppose That He ...

Mayer
Mayer (tostas), In Biography, A Very Able German Astronomer And Me Chanic In The Eighteenth Century, Was Born At Marspach, In The Duchy Of Wit. Temberg, In The Year 1723. His Father Was An Ingenious Civil-engineer, Who Particu Larly Excelled In Hydraulics ; And Young Tobias, Who Was Fund Of ...

Mean
Mean, A Middle State Between Two Extremes ; Thus We Have An Arithmetical Mean, Geometrical Mean, Mean Distance, Mean Motion, &c. An Arithmetical Mean Is Half The Sum Of The Extremes : Thus, If 2 And 12 Be The Extremes, Then 2 + 12 2 7 Is The Arithmetical Mean ...

Measure
Measure Of A Figure Or A Surface Per Fectly Level, Thence Called A Plane Surface, Is A Square Inch, Foot, Or Yard. This Square Is Termed The Measuring Unit, Be Cause The Side Is An Inch, A Foot, A Yard, Or Any Other Determinate Extent. Measuns Of A Certain Portion ...

Mechanics
Mechanics. The Force Of A Body At Rest Is That Which We Conceive To Be In A Body Lying Still On A Table, Or Hanging By A Rope, Or Supported By A Spring, And Is Called By The Names Of Pressure, Vis Mor Tua, &c. The Measure Of This Force ...

Mechanics_2
Mechanics, Is The Science Which Treats Of The Laws Of The Equilibrium And Motion Of Solid Bodies ; Of The Forces By Which Bodies, Whether Animate Or Inani Mate, May Be Made To Act Upon One Ano Ther; And Of The Means By Which These May Be Increased, So As ...

Medal
Medal. This Word Has Generally Been Supposed To He Derived From Metal Lu M, From Which We Have The English Term .metal; But It May Admit Of Some Doubt Whether The Derivation Is Correct, As The Word Appears To Have Too Comprehensive A Sense To Particularize A Piece Of Gold, ...