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Pleuronectes
Pleuronectes, The Flounder, In Na Tural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Or. Der Thoracici. Generic Character : The Eyes Spherical, And Both On The Same Side Of The Head; Mouth Arched ; Body Com Pressed, One Side Representing The Back, And The Other The Abdomen. In This Ge ...

Plo1 Ting
Plo1 Ting, Among Surveyors, Is The Art Of .aping Down On Paper, &c. The Se Veral Angles And Lines Of A Tract Of Ground Surveyed By A Theodolite, &c. And A Chain. In Surveying With The Plain Table, The Plotting Is Saved ; The Several Angles And Distances Being Laid ...

Plumbery
Plumbery, The Art Of Casting And Working Lead, And Using It In Buildings, &c. As This Metal Melts Very Readily, It Is Easy To Cast It Into Figures Of Any Kind, By Running It Into Moulds Of Brass, Clay, Plaster, &c. But The Chief Articles In Plumbery Are Sheets And ...

Plummet
Plummet, Plumn.nutn, Or Plumb • Line, An Instrument Used By Carpenters, Masons, &c. In Order To Judge Whether Walls, &c. Be Upright Planes, Horizontal, Or The Like. It Is Thus Called From A Piece Of Lead, " Plumbum," Fastened To The End Of A Cord, Which Usually Constitutes This Instrument. ...

Pmeton
Pmeton, The Tropic Bird, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order An. Sexes. Generic Character : Bill Sharp-edg Ed And Pointed ; Compressed, And Slight Ly Sloping Down ; Nostrils Pervious And Oblong ; Tour Toes All Webbed Together ; Tail Wedge-formed, The Two Middle Fea Thers ...

Pneumatics
Pneumatics, Is That Branch Of Na Tural Philosophy Which Treats Of The Weight, Pressure, And Elasticity Of The Air, With The Effects Arising From Them. Galileo, Whose Name Is Presented As Of Itself, Whenever The Enquiry Relates To The First Researches Concerning Gravity, Had Verified That Of The Air, Which ...

Poetry
Poetry. Dr. Blackwall, In His "es Say On The Life And Writings Of Homer," Says, On The Subject Of Poetry, That " It Is Of A Nature So Delicate, As Not To Admit Of A Direct Definition ; For If Ever The Je Ne Seals Quoi Was Rightly Applied, It ...

Poisons
Poisons, Those Substances Which, When Applied Externally, Or Taken Into The Human Body, Uniformly Cause Such A Derangement Of The Animal Economy As To Produce Disease. As It Is Extremely Dif Ficult, However, To Give A Definition Of A Poison, The Above Is Subject To Great In Accuracy. Poisons Are ...

Polygon
Polygon, In Geometry, A Figure With Many Sides, Or Whose Perimeter Consists Of More Than Four Sides At Least : Such Are The Pentagon, Hexagon, Heptagon, &c. Every Polygon May Be Divided Into As Many Triangles As It Has Sides ; For If You Assume A Point, As A, (see ...

Polygon_2
Polygon, In Fortification, Denotes The Figure Of A Town, Or Other Fortress. The Exterior Or External Polygon Is Bounded By Lines Drawn From The Point Of Each Bastion To The Points Of The Adjacent Bas Tions ; And The Interior Polygon Is Formed By Lines Joining The Centres Of The ...

Polynemus
Polynemus, The Polyneme, In Natu Ral History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Abdominales. Generic Character : Head Compressed, Covered Widi Scales ; Snout Very Obtuse And Prominent ; Gill-mem Brane, Five Or Seven-rayed; Separate Fila Ments Near The Base Of The Pectoral Fins. Shaw Enumerates Ten Species ; ...

Pomacex
Pomacex, In Botany, The Name Of The Thirty-sixth Order In Linmeus's Frag Ments Of A Natural Method, Consisting Of Genera, Which Have A Pulpy Esculent Fruit, Of The Apple, Berry, And Cherry Kind ; Such Are The Prunus, Pyrus, Ribes, &c. The Plants Of This Order Are Most Of The ...

Poor
Poor Laws. Of The General Outline Of This Most Enormous And Almost Ineffectu Al Burden On The People, Much Has Been Said In The Excellent Treatise Of Mr Colqu Houn. The 43 Of Elizabeth, C. 2, Is The Foundation Of All That Is Good In The Poor Laws ; Making ...

Poors
Poor's Rate, An Assessment Raised Throughout England And Wales, For The Temporary Relief, Or Permanent Main Tenance, Of All Such Persons, As, From Age, Infirmity, Or Poverty, Cannot Them Selves Procure The Means Of Subsistence. The First Statute, Or Law Made In Eng Land, Which Gives Any Particular Direc Tions ...

Poppy
Poppy, We Have, Under The Word Pa Aven, Given A Botanical Account Of The Plant ; We Are Now To Speak Of It As Pro Ductive Of Opium. The Officinal Poppy Is A Native Of The Southern Parts Of Europe, But It Is Thought To Have Been Originally From Asia, ...

Population
Population, The Proportion Of In Habitants Which A Country Or District Con Tains. The Increase Or Diminution Of The Members Of A State Has At All Periods Been Thought An Object Deserving The Atten Tion Of Governments ; But Very Different Opinions Have Been Entertained On The Subject. Some Ancient ...

Porcelain
Porcelain, A Fine Sort Of Earthen*. Ware, Chiefly Manufactured In China, And Thence Called China-ware. The Combination Of Silex And Argil Is The Basis Of Porcelain: And, With The Ad Dition Of Various Proportions Of Other Earths, And Even Of Some Metallic Oxides, Forms The Different Varieties Of Pottery, From ...

Portland
Portland Vase, A Celebrated Funeral Vase, Which Was Long In The Possession Of The Raberini 6anily ; But Which Was Some Tears Since Purchased For 1000 Guineas By The Duke Of Portland, From Whom It Has Derived Its Present Name. Its Height Is About Ten Inches, And Its Diameter, Where ...

Post
Post, A Word Synonymous With Cow. Vier, Which Is Supposed To Be Originally Derived From Horses For The Conveyance Of Dispatches, Being Positi, Or Placed At Convenient Distances, As Relays Or Changes For Those Fatigued, And Unable To Proceed The Whole Journey With The Desired Speed. Hence It Has Become ...

Potash
Potash, In Chemistry, A Substance Which Is Procured From The Burnt Ashes Of Vegetables, Hence The Termination Ash; The Prefix Pot Was Given On Account Of Its Being Prepared In Iron Pots. It Obtain Ed The Name Of Vegetable Alkali, Because It Was Supposed To Exist Only In Vegetable Substances ...

Potasium
Potasium, And Sodium, Or Sorarom. Of These, And Of The Experiments Which Led To The Discoveries, We Shall Proceed To Give Some Account, Having Attended The Repetition Of His Experiments At The Lec Tures Delivered Last Spring At The Royal Institution. Mr. Davy, In His First At Tempts To Decompose ...

Pottery
Pottery, The Manufacture Of Earth. En Ware, Or The Art Of Making Earthen Vessels. The Inferior Kinds Of Porcelain, Or Pottery, Are,prepared By The Same Pro Cess As That Which Has Been Described Under The Word Porcelain; Less Pure, But More Fusible Materials Being Employ. Ed, And, Of Course, A ...

Power
Power, In Mechanics, Denotes Any Force, Whether Of A Man, A Horse, A Spring, The Wind, Water, &c. Which Being Applied To A Machine, Tends To Produce Motion. The Intensity Of A Power Is Its Absolute Force ; That Is, Its Force, Supposing Its Ve Locity Equal To Its Weight ...

Powers
Powers, In Arithmetic And Algebra, Are The Products Arising From The Continual Multiplication Of A Number, Or Quantity, Into Itself: Thus, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, &c. Are The Powers Of The Number 2 ; And A, A', Frt, &c. The Powers Of The Quantity A ; Which Operation Is ...

Practical Benevolence 72
Practical Benevolence. 72. Having Now Established The Posi Tion, That Benevolence Should Be A Prima Ry Pursuit Of Men, It Follows That We Should Aim To Direct Every Action, So As To Produce The Greatest Happiness And The Least Misery In Our Power. This Is The Rule Of Conduct Towards ...

Precession
Precession Of The Equinoxes,is A Very Slow Motion Of Them, By Which They Change Their Place, Going From East To West, Or Backward, In Antecedentia, As Astronomers Call It, Or Contrary To The Order Of The Signs. From The Late Improvements In Astrono My It Appears, That The Pole, The ...

Precipitation
Precipitation, That Process By Which Bodies Dissolved, Mixed, Or Sus Pended In A Fluid, Are Separated From The Fluid, And Made To Gravitate To The Bot Tom Of The Vessel: This Is One Of The Great Operations In Chemistry, And Is Op. Posed To That Of Solution. In Truth The ...

Prectiko
Prectiko, Stereotype. Perhaps It Would Not Have Been Improper To Have Treated Of Stereotype Printing Even Before That Of Common Printing: For The First Ideas Of This Art Were Certainly Anterior To Those Of Printing By Moveable Types. The Method Of Printing Linen And Pa. Per For Hangings Has Been ...

Pregnancy
Pregnancy. Pregnancy Produces A Great Number Of Changes In The Constitution, Dependent Upon The Change Which Takes Place In The Uterus, The Great Centre Of Sympathy In The Female Frame. It Also Produces A Variety Of Complaints Which Are Rather Troublesome Than Severe, And Many Of Which Must Rather Be ...

Prerogative
Prerogative, In Law, Means All The Rights And Privileges Which By Law The King Bath, As Chief Of The Commonwealth, And As Intrusted With The Execution Of The Laws ; And This Can Be Only According To Magna Charta. We Shall Here Briefly Set Down Those Articles Which Are Enu ...

Presbyterians
Presbyterians. This Denomina Tion Of Protestant Dissenters Has Been Called By Different Names At Different Pe Riods Of Time. In Their First Attempts For A Further Reformation Of The Church, They Were, By Way Of Reproach, Termed Puri Tans, A Name Derived From The Cathari Or .puritini Of The Third ...

Press
Press, In The Mechanic Art, A Machine Made Of Iron Or Wood, Serving To Squeeze Or Compress Any Body Very Close. The Ordinary Presses Consist Of Six Members, Or Pieces, Viz. Two Flat Planks, Between Which The Things To Be Pressed Are Laid; Two Screws, Or Worms, Fastened To The ...

Press_2
Press, Hop, (plate Press) A Machine Used In Breweries For Compressing Bags Of Hops Into A Small Compass, That They May Take Less Room For The Stowage. In The Plantation Where The Hops Are Grown, (after Being Picked, Dried, And Made Rea Dy For Sale) They Are Placed In An ...

Prime
Prime Figure, In Geometry, One Which Cannot Be Divided Into Any Other Figures More Simple Than Itself, As A Triangle Among Planes, And The Pyramid Among Solids. Brings The Screw And The Swinging Bed Of The Press Down Upon The Bag, And Com Presses It Into A Very Small Space. ...

Principia
Principia. "stilling Waves By Means Of Oil." This Wonderful Property, Though Well Known To The Ancients, As Appears From The Writings Of Pliny, Was For ,many Ages Either Quite Unnoticed, Or Treated As Fa Bulous By Succeeding Philosophers. By Means Of Dr...franklin, The Subject Again Attracted The Attention Of The ...

Principles Op Building
Principles Op Building, Are Those Parts Of Geometry, Mechanics, Mensuration, And Chemistry, Which Shew How To Design And Construct The Parts Of A Building, So As To Be The Most Durable, The Destination, Situation, And Other Fixed Data Of The Intended Structure, Being Known. These Parts Of The Sciences Are ...

Printing
Printing, The Art Of Making An Im Pression Upon One Body By Pressing It With Another. This Art, In Some Way Or Other, Has Been Known In All Ages. It Has Been Done Upon Wax, Upon Plaster, Upon Iron, By The Ancients ; Their Seals, Their Rings, Their Money, Prove ...

Pro Portion
Pro Portion, Harmonic, Is When Three Terms Are So Disposed, That As The Differ Ence Of The First And Second : The Differ Ence Of The Second And Third :: First : Tnird ; And They Are Said To Be Harmonical Ly Proportional. Thus, 10, 15, 30, Are Harmonically Proportional. ...

Probability
Probability Is Nothing But The Ap Pea•ance Of The Agreement Or Disagree Ment Of Two Ideas, By The Intervention Of Proofs Whose Connection Is Not Constant And Immutable, Or Is Not Perceived To Be So ; But Is, Or Appears For The Most Part To Be So ; And Is ...

Problems Which Produce
Problems Which Produce Stittrln Ecluations. From Certain Quantities Which Are Known, To Investigate Others Ythich Have A Given Relation To Them, Is The Business Of Algebra. When A Question Is Proposed To Be Re Solved, We Must First Consider Fully Its Meaning And Conditions. Then Substi. Tuting For Such Unknown ...

Procellaria
Procellaria, The Petrel, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order An Sere's. Generic Character : Bill Strait, But Hooked At The End ; Nostrils Generally Contained In One Tube, At The Base Of The Bill ; Legs Naked A Little Above The Knee ; Back Toe Little ...

Progression
Progression, In Mathematics, Is Either Arithmetical Or Geometrical. Con Tinued Arithmetic Proportion, Where The Terms Do Increase And Decrease By Equal Differences, Is Called Arithmetic Progres Sion. If 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, &c. A, A + B, A + 2 B, 4 + 3 B, &c. A, A - ...

Projectile
Projectile$. Prob. I. The Impetus Of A Ball, And The Horizontal Distance Of An Object Aimed At, With Its Perpendicular Height Or Depres Sion, If Thrown On Ascents Or Descents, Being Given, To Determine The Direction Of That Ball. From The Point Of Projection A (plate Vi. Miscell. Fig. 8, ...

Projectiles
Projectiles, Are Such Bodies As, Be Ing Put In A Violent Motion By Any Great Force, Are Then Cast Off Or Let Go From The Place Where They Received Their Quantity Of Motion ; As A Stone Thrown From A Sling, An Arrow From A Bow A Bullet From A ...

Prop
Prop. If A Point Be Assumed Without Or Within An Ellipse, And Two Right Lines, Parallel To Two Diameters, Be Drawn From It To Cut Or Touch The Ellipse ; Then, As The Rec Tangle Under The Segments Of The Secant, Or The Square Of The Tangent, Parallel To One ...

Proportion
Proportion. When Two Quantities Are Compared One With Another, In Respect Of Their Greatness Or Smallness, The Com Parison Is Called Ratio, Reason, Rate, Or Proportion ; But When More Than Two Quantities Are Compared, Then The Com Parison Is More Usually Called The Propor. Tion That They Have To ...

Protestants
Protestants, A Term Now Applied To All Christians Who In Any Country Or Of Any Sect Dissent From The Principles And Discipline Of The Church Of Rome. This Name Was First Given To The Following Princes Of The German Empire ; John, Elector Of Saxony; George, Elector Of Brandenburg, For ...