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Prussiates
Prussiates, In Chemistry, Salts Formed With The Prussic Acid. These Salts Have Not Been Attentively Examined, On Account Of Their Want Of Permanency, Unless They Are United With Some Metallic Oxide ; But The Prussiate Of Potash And Iron, Which Is A Triple Salt, Has Been Used By Chemists As ...

Prussic
Prussic Acid, In Chemistry And The Arts, Is One Of The Most Important Of The Acids. It Was Discovered By Accident, About The Beginning Of The Last Century, By Diesbach, A Chemist Of Berlin. This Gentleman, Wishing To Precipitate A Decoc Tion Of Cochineal With An Alkali, Got Some Potash, ...

Psittacus
Psittacus, The Parrot, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pica. Generic Character : Bill Hooked, Upper Mandible Moveable ; Nostrils Round In The Base Of The Bill, And Sometimes Covered With A Cere ; Tongue Fleshy, Broad, And Blunt At The End ; Head Large, ...

Ptolemy
Ptolemy (cl/towns), In Biography, A Very Celebrated Geographer, Astrono Mer, And Mathematician, Among The An Cients, Was Born At Pelusium, In Egypt, A Bout The Seventeenth Year Of The Christian Era, And Died, It Has Been Said, In The Se Venty-eighth Year Of His Age, And In The Year Of ...

Ptrixim
Ptrixim. Frequent Pulse, Succeeded By Shivering Or Horror ; Increased Heat ; Disturbed Func Tions ; Prostration Of Strength. Pyrexy Independent Of Local Affection As Its Cause ; Langour, Lassitude, And Other Signs Of Debility. This Order Is Divided Into Two Sections, An Intermittent, Including Tertian, Quer Tans, And Quotidian, ...

Pulex
Pulex, In Natural History, The ,flea, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Aptera. Ge Neric Character : Mouth Without Jaws Or Feelers, With A Long Inflected Proboscis, Covered At The Base With Two Ovate La Mince; The Sheath Two-valved, Five-joint Ed, And Concealing A Single Bristle ; Lip Rounded ...

Pump
Pump, In Hydraulics, A Machine Form Ed On The Model Of A Syringe, Fur Raising Of Water. See. Hydraulics. Pump Air. See Pump Chain, Consists Of A Tong Chain, Equipped With A Sufficient Number Of Valves, At Proper Distances, Which Working Upon Two Wheels, One Above And The Other Below, ...

Punctuation
Punctuation, The Art Of Dividing A Written Composition Into Sentences, Or Parts Of Sentences, By Points Or Stops, For The Purpose Of Marking The Different Pauses Which The Sense Requires. The Comma (,) Represents The Shortest Pause ; The Semicolon (;) A Pause Double That Of The Comma ; The ...

Puritans
Puritans, A Name Given To The Pro Testant Exiles Who Returned To England Upon The Accession Of Queen Elizabeth These Exiles Were No Sooner Come To Their Native Country, Than They Set About To Carry On The Work Of Reformation, Even Further Than It Had Been Done By The Ec ...

Purser
Purser, An Officer Aboard A Man Of War, Who Receives Her Victuals From The Victualler, Sees That It Be Well Stowed, And Keeps An Account Of What He Every Day Delivered To The Steward. He Also Keeps A List Of The Ship's Company, And Sets Down Exactly The Day Of ...

Pyra3m
Pyra3m), In Geometry, A Solid, Stand Ing On A Triangular, Square, Or Polygonal Basis, And Terminating In A Point At The Top ; Or, According To Euclid, It Is A Solid Figure, Consisting Of Several Triangles, Whose Bases Are All In The Same Plane, And Have One Common Vertex. Hence ...

Pyramid
Pyramid, In Architecture : This Form We Derive From The Egyptians, A People Who Conceived And Executed Unparallel Ed Works, Which Are, However, More Re Markable For Their Strength And Durabili Ty Than Elegance Of And Beauty Of Execution. According To Hcrodotus, The People Alluded To Considered The Py Ramidal ...

Pyrites
Pyrites. Iron, In Combination With Sulphur, Forms A Mineral Substance, Which Has Been Long Known Under The Name Of Pyrites, And Which Is Very Extensively Dif Fused. It Occurs Massive, Disseminated, And Frequently Crystallized : The Forms Of Its Crystals Are Various, But The Most Com Mon Is The Cube ...

Pyrometer
Pyrometer, An Instrument For Mea. Suring The Expansion Of Bodies By Heat. The Whole Art In Forming An Instrument, Adapted To This Purpose, Is So As To Ren Der It Capable Of Showing Very Small Ex Pansions Of Solid Bodies. Different Instill- Ments Have. Been Invented For This Pur Pose ...

Pyrotechny
Pyrotechny, Is, Properly Speak Ing, The Science Which Teaches The Ma Nagement And Application Of Fire In Divers Operations ; But In A More Limited Sense, And As It Is Commonly Used, It Refers Chiefly To The Composition, Structure, And Use Of Artificial Fire-works. The Ingredi Ents Are, 1. Saltpetre, ...

Quadrant
Quadrant, Denotes A Mathematical Instrument, Of Great Service In Astronomy, And, Consequently, In Navigation, For Tak Ing The Altitudes Of The Sun And Stars ; As Also For Taking Angles In Surveying. Those Chiefly In Use, Are Adams's, Cole's, Gun Ter's, Hadley's, Sutton's, Or Collins's, The Horodictical, The Sinical, The ...

Quadrat
Quadrat, A Mathematical Instru, Ment, Called Also A Geometrical Square, And Line Of Shadows ; It Is Frequently An Additional Member On The Face Of The Common Quadrant, As Also On Those Of Gunter's And Sutton's Quadrants ; But We Shall Describe It By Itself, As Being A Dis Tinct ...

Quadrature
Quadrature, In Geometry, Denotes The Squaring, Or Reducing A Figure To A Square. Thus, The Finding Of A Square, Which Shall Contain Just As Much Surface, Or Area, As A Circle, An Ellipsis, A Triangle, &c. Is The Quadrature Of A Circle, Ellipsis, &c. The Quadrature Of Rectilinear Figures, Or ...

Quantity
Quantity, Any Thing Capable Of Es Timation, Or Mensuration ; Or Which, Being Compared With Another Thing Of The Same Kind, May Be Said To Be Greater Or Less Than It, Equal Or Unequal To It. Mathema Tics Is The Science Or Doctrine Of Quantity, Which Being Made Up Of ...

Quarry
Quarry, A Place Under Ground, Out Of Which Are Got Marble, Free-stone, Slate, Lime Stone, Or Other Matters Proper For Buildings. Quarries Of Free Stone Are In Many Places Opened, And The Stone Brought Out In The Following Manner They First Dig A Hole In The Manner Of A Well, ...

Quarter
Quarter Sessions. The Sessions Of The Peace Is A Court Of Record Holden Be Fore Two Or More Justices, Whereof One Is Of The Quorum, For The Execution Of The Authority Given Them By The Commission Of The Peace, And Certain Statutes And Acts Of Parliament. The Justices Keep Their ...

Quartz
Quartz, In Mineralogy, A Species Of The Flint Genus, Which Is Divided Into Five Sub-species, Viz, The Amethyst, Which See ; The Rock-crytal ; Milk-quartz ; Com Mon-quartz ; And Prase. The Rock-crys Tal Is White, Passing To Brown Through All The Intermediate Shades. It Occurs Rarely Massive• Often In ...

Quassia
Quassia, In Botany, So Named In Me Mory Of (bassi, A Negro Slave, Who Disco Vered The Wood Of This Tree, A Genus Of The Decandria Monogynia Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Gruinales. Mag. Nolbe, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five-leaved ; Petals Five ; Nectary Five Leaved ...

Quercus
Quercus, In Botany, The Oak Tree, A Genus Of The Monoecia Polyandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Amentacew. Essential Character: Male, Calyx Com Monly Five-cleft ; Corolla None ; Stamina Five To Ten : Female, Calyx One-leaved, Quite Entire, Rugged ; Corolla None ; Styles Two To Five ; ...

Rahticulail Fractures
Rahticulail Fractures. We Shall Say A Few Words On The Most Common And Important Kinds Of Fracture. Fracture Of The Lower Jaw May Be Detect. Ed By Introducing A Finger Into The Mouth And Pressing On The Front Portion Of The Bone, While The Fingers Of The Other Hand Are ...

Raia
Raia, The Ray, In Natural History, A Ge Nus Of Fishes Of The Order Cartilaginei. Generic Character : Five Spiracles On Each Side, Placed Beneath, Near The Neck ; Mouth Beneath The Head, Transverse, Be Set With Teeth ; Head Small, Pointed, And Not Distinct From The Body Rbody Some ...

Rain
Rain Gauge, A Machine For Measuring The Quantity Of Rain That Falls. There Are Various Kinds Of Rain-gauges : That Used At The Apartments Belonging To The Royal Society At Somerset- Muse, Is Thus De Scribed. The Vessel Which Receives The Rain Is A Conical Funnel, Strengthened At The Top ...

Rainbow
Rainbow. The Rainbow Is A Circular Image Of The Sun, Variously Coloured. It Is Thus Produced : The Solar Rays, Entering The Drops Of Falling Rain, Are Refracted To Their Further Surfaces, And Thence, By One Or More Reflections, Transmitted To The Eye : At Their Emergence F'rom The Drop, ...

Rainbow
Rainbow. This Appearance Is Also Seen By Moon Light, Though Seldom Vivid Enough To Render The Colours Distinguishable; And The Artificial Rainbow May Be Produced Even By Candle-light, On The Water Which Is Ejected By A Small Ibuntain, Or Jet D'eau. All These Are Of The Same Nature, And De ...

Rallus
Rallus, The Rail, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Grallm. Ge Neric Character : Bill Slender, Slightly Compressed, And Incurvated ; Nostrils Small ; Tong-tie Rough At The End ; Body Much Compressed ; Tail Very Short. There Are Twenty-two Species, Of Which We Shall Notice ...

Rana
Rana, The Frog, In Natural History, A Genus Of Amphibia Of The Order Reptiles. Generic Character : Body Four-footed, Tail Less, And Without Any Integument But The Skin ; Hind Legs Longer Than The Fore. There Are Thirty-six Species, Of Which The Following Deserve The Chief Attention : It. Bufo, ...

Rarefaction
Rarefaction, In Physics, Is The Making A Body To Expand Or Occupy Room Or Space, Without The Accession Of New Matter. It Is By Rarefaction That Gunpowder Takes Effect ; And To The Same Pritciple Also We Owe Eulipiles, Thermo. Mett Rs, &c. The Degree To Which Air Is Rarefiable ...

Ratio
Ratio, In Mathematics, Is The Relation Which One Quantity Bears To Another In Respect Of Magnitude, The Comparison Be Ing Made By Considering How Often One Contains, Or Is Contained By The Other. Thus, In Comparing 6 With 3, We Observe That It Has A Certain Magnitude With Res Pect ...

Rauwolpia
Rauwolpia, In Botany, So Named In Honour Of Leonhard Physician At Augsburg, A Genus Of The Pentandria Monngynia Class And Order. Natural Or Der Of Contortz. Apocinex, Jussieu. Essential Character : Contorted ; Berry Succulent, Two-seeded. There Are Four Species. Ray, In Optics, A Beam Of Light, Emit Ted From ...

Recovery
Recovery, In Law, The Name Of A Species Of Conveyance Of Great Effect And Much Utility. Common Recoveries Were Invented By The Ecclesiastics, To Elude The Statutes Of Rnortmain ; And Afterwards En Couraged By The Courts At Law, In Order To Put An End To All Fettered Inheritances, And ...

Reflecting
Reflecting Circle, An Astronomical Instrument For Measuring Angles, It Is Called Reflecting From Its Property, In Com Mon With The Hadley's Quadrant (of Which It Is A Modification) Of Observing One Of The Objects Of The Angle To Be Measured By Distinct Vision, And The Other By Re Flection Of ...

Reflection
Reflection. As The Rays Of Light Are Reflected By Polished Surfaces, So It Is Found That The Rays Of Caloric Have The Same Property. The Swedish Chemist Scheele Discovered, That The Angle Of Re Flection Of The Rays Of Caloric Is Equal To The Angle Of Incidence. This Has Been ...

Reformation
Reformation. From The Effects Of That Blow The Ro Man Catholic Interests Have Never Yet Re. Covered. It Was A Deep And Deadly Wound To The Usurpations Of Tyranny, And The Towering Pride Of Ecclesiastical Domi Nation. Iu The Article To Which We Have Already Alluded, The Reader Will Find ...

Reformation
Reformation, In Church History; Is That Amazing Change In The Religion And Politics Of A Great Part Of Europe, Which Began To Take Place In The Early Part Of The Sixteenth Century. An Event Of Such Magnitude, With Which The Pro Gress Of The Arts And Universal Learning Is So ...

Refraction
Refraction, Terrestrial, Is That By Which Terrestrial Objects Appear To Be Raised Higher Than They Really Are, In Ob Serving Their Altitudes. The Quantity Of This Refraction Is Estimated By Dr. Alas Kelyne At One Tenth Of The Distance Of The Object Observed, Expressed In Degrees Of A Great Circle. ...

Refraction
Refraction, In Astronomy, Or Rs Fraction Of The Stars, Is An Inflexion Of The Rays Of Those Luminaries, In Passing Through Our Atmosphere, By Which The Apparent Altitudes Of The Heavenly Bodies Are Increased. This Refraction Arises From Hence, That The Atmosphere Is Unequally Dense In Different Stages Or Regions ...

Register
Register, A Public Book, In Whirl" Is Entered And Recorded Memoirs, Acts,: And Minutes, To Be Had Recourse To Occasional Ly, For Knowing And Proving Matters Of Fact. Of These There Are Several Kinds ; As, 1. Registers Of Deeds In Yorkshire And Middlesex, In Which Are Registered All Deeds, ...

Regulation
Regulation' Or The Pursuit 0! 63x5i3l1 Pleasures. 27. The Foregoing Remarks Prove, That The Pleasures Of Sensation Ought Not To Be Made The Primary Pursuit Of Life, But Require To Be Regulated And Restrained By Some Foreign Regulating Power. That They Should Be Submitted To The Precepts Of Benevolence, Piety, ...

Remainder
Remainder, In Law, Is An Estate Li Mited In Lands, Tenements, Or Rents, To Be Enjoyed After The Expiration Of Another Particular Estate. As If A Man Seized In Fee-simple Grant Lands To One For Twenty Years, And, After The Determination Of The Said Term, Then To Another, And His ...

Remembrangers
Remembrangers, Anciently Called. Clerks Of The Remembrance, Certain Offi Cers In The Exchequer, Whereof Three Are Distinguished By The Names Of The King's Remembrancer, The Lord Treasurer's Re Membrancer, And The Remembrancer Of The First Fruits. The King's Remem Brance'. Enters In His Office All Recognizan Ces Taken Before The ...

Replevin
Replevin, In Law, Is A Writ By Him, Who Has Cattle Or Other Goods Distrained By Another, For Any Cause. If He Wishes To Dispute The Propiety Ofthe Distress, He Sues This Writ, And Upon Putting In Surety To The Sheriff, That Upon Delivery Of The Thing Distrained, He Will ...

Reproduction
Reproduction Is Usually Under Stood To Mean The Restoration Of A Thing Before Existing And Since Destroyed. It Is Very Well Known That Trees And Plants May He Raised From Slips And Cuttings ; And Some Late Observations Have Shown, That There Are Some Animals Which Have The Same Property. ...

Repulsion
Repulsion, In Physics, That Property In Bodies, Whereby, If They Are Placed Just Beyond The Sphere Of Each Other's Attraction Of Cohesion, They Mutually Fly From Each Other. Thus, If An Oily Sub. Stance, Lighter Than Water, Be Placed On The Surface Thereof, Or If A Piece Of Iron Be ...

Resins
Resins. Resinous Bodies Form A Very Numerous Class Of Vegetable Substances. When Volatile Oils Are Exposed To The Air, They Become Thick After A Shorter Or Longer Time, And Are Then Found To He Converted Into A Resin. The Oil Absorbs Oxygen From The Air, And Is Deprived Of Part ...

Resolution
Resolution, In Algebra, Or Algebrai Cal Resolution, Is Of Two Kinds ; The One Practised In Numerical Problems, The Other In Geometrical Ones. In Resolving A Numerical Problem Alge Braically, The Method Is This : First, The Given Quantities Are Distinguished From Those That Are Sought ; And The Former ...

Respecting The Composition Of
Respecting The Composition Of Ideas. 53. Another Grand Law, Or Mode Of Operation, Of The Associative Power Is That By Which Simple Ideas Are Formed Into Compound, Or Complex Ideas ; In Other Words, More Generally, By Which Simple Sensorial Changes Are Combined And Blended Together.—in The Conside Ration Of ...

Respiration
Respiration, In Animal Economy. The Absolute Necessity Of Respiration, Or Of Something Analogous, Is Known To Eve Ry One ; And Few Are Ignorant That In Man, And Hot Blooded Animals, The Organ By Which Respiration Is Performed Is The Lungs. Now Respiration Consists In Draw Ing A Certain Quantity ...

Respiration
Respiration And Blood. The Action Of The Lungs Upon The Blood Is So Essential To The Continuance Of Life, That Its Interruption Very Speedily Causes Death. Yet, In These Cases, Absolute Death Does Not Occur Instantly, But The Vital Processes, Although Suspended For A Time, May Be Renewed By A ...

Retention
Retention. Whatever Be The Ef Fect Produced In The Mental Organs By The Impressions On The Organs Of Sense, That Effect Can Be Renewed, Though In General With Diminished Vigour, Without A Repeti Tion Of The Sensible Impressions. In Other Words, Sensible Changes Produce A Ten Dency To Similar Changes, ...

Returning
Returning Stroke, In Electricity, Is An Expression Used By Lord Mahon, (now Earl Stanhope), To Denote The Effect Produced By The Return Of The Electric Fluid Into A Body, From Which, Under Certain Circumstances, It Has Been Ex Pelled. To Understand Properly The Meaning Of These Terms, It Must Be ...

Revenue
Revenue, Public, The Portion Of The General Income Of A State, Which Is Ap Propriated To The Payment Of National Ex Penses. Different Nations Have Adopted Different Modes Of Raising A Public Reve Nue, But The Rent Derived From Land, Being Obviously A Fund Of A More Permanent Na Ture ...

Reversion
Reversion, A Sum Of Money, Estate, Annuity, Or Any Other Kind Of Property, The Possession Of Which Is Not To Be Ob Tained Till After The Expiration Of A Certain Period Of Time, Or Till Some Event, As The Failure Of A Life Or Lives, Has Happened. The Present Value ...