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Rhetoric
Rhetoric, From The Creek Word Ed. To Speak, May Be Defined The Art Of Speaking With Persuasion. This Art, Like All Others, Is The Result Of Observations And Experiments Made By Men Of Good Capacities And Of En Lightened Minds. After Multiplied And Often Defective Essays, Those Principles Are At ...

Rhinoceros
Rhinoceros, In Natural History, A Genus Of Matninalia Of The Order Perm, Generic Character : Horn Solid, Perennial, Conical, Seated On The Nose, But Not Ad Hering To The Bone This Quadruped Is Exceeded In Size Only By The Elephant. Its Usual Length, Not Including The Tail, Is Twelve Feet ...

Rietort Op
Rietort Op •natomt, The Want Of Records Leaves Us In The Dark, With Regard To The Origin Of This Art; Yet It Is Reasonable'to Conclude, That, Like Most Other Arts, It Had No Precise Begin Ning. The Nature Of The Thing Would Not Admit Of Its Lying For A Time ...

Rifle
Rifle, A Fire-arm, Which Has The Inside Of Its Barrel Cut With From Three To Nin Or Ten Spiral Grooves, So As To Make It Re Semble A Feinale Screw, Varying From A Common Screw Only In This, That Its Grooves-or Rifles Are Less Deflected, And Approach More To A ...

Riieticus
Riieticus ((icemen Joacnim), In Bi Ography, A Noted German Astronomer And Mathematician, Was Born At 1'eldkirk, In Tyrol, The 15th Of February, 1514. After Imbibing The Elements Of The Ma Thematics At Tignri, With Oswald Mycone, He Went To Wittemberg, Where He Dili Gently Cultivated That Science. Here He Was ...

Rings
Rings Of Colours, In Optics, A Phenome Non First Observed In Thin Plates Of Vari Ous Substances, By Boyle, And _hooke, But Afterwards More Fully Explained By Sir Isaac Newton. Mr. Boyle Having Exhi Bited A Variety Of Colours In Colourless Li Quors, By Shaking Them Till They Rose In ...

River
River, A Current, Or Stream Of Fresh Water, Flowing In A Bed Or Channel,from Its Source, Into The Sea. When A Stream Isnot Large Enough To Bear Boats, Or Small Yes• Sels Laden, It Is Called A Rivulet Or Brook., The Great, As Well As The Middle-sized Rivers, Proceed Either ...

Road
Road, An Open Way, Or Public Passage, Forming A Communication Between One Place And Another. The Romans Took The Most Pains In Forming Roads, And The Labour And Expenses They Were At In Ren Dering Them Spacious, Firm, Straight, And Smooth, Is Incredibld. They Usually Strengthened The Ground By Ramming ...

Robbery
Robbery, Is A Felonious Taking Away Of Another Man's Goods From His Person, Or Presence, Against His Will, Putting Him In Fear, On Purpose To Steal The Same. The Value Is Immaterial. If A Man Force Another To Part With His Property, For The Sake Of Preserving His Character From ...

Robinia
Robinia, In Botany, A Genus Of The Diadelphia Decandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Papilionacex, Or Legu Minosx. Essential Character : Calyx Four Cleft ; Legume Gibbous, Elongated. There Are Seventeen Species. Robins (13exj.imix), In Biography, An English Mathematician And Philoso Pher, Of Great Genius And Eminence, Was Born ...

Rochefortia
Rochefortia, In Botany, So Nam Ed In Memory Of De Rochefort, A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Dumosm. Rham Ni, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five-parted; Corolla One Petalled, Fun Nel-form, Inferior, With The Aperture Open ; Fruit Two-celled, Many-seeded. There Are Two ...

Rogative
Rogative. This Coronation Oath Is Conceivedin The Following Terms; The Archbishop Or Bishop Shall Say, Will You Solemnly Promise And Swear To Go Vern The People Of This Kingdom Of Eng Land, (qssere Great Britain. See Statute 5 Ann. C. 8, Sect. 1. And This Dictionary, Title Scotland ;) And ...

Rohault James
Rohault (james), In Biography, A French Philosopher, Was The Soh Of A Rich Merchant At Amiens, Where He Was Born In 1620. He Cultivated The Languages And Belles Lettres In His Own Country, And Then Was Sent To Paris To Study Philoso Phy. He Seems To Have Been A Great ...

Rolling
Rolling Mill, In Mechanics, A Ma Chine Fbr Working Metals Into Plates, Or Bars, Which Are Required Of An Even Thick Ness. In The Plate Rolling-mill, Are Three Elevations Of A Machine For This Purpose, A B, I) E, In All These Figures Is A Massive Frame Of Cast Iron, ...

Roman
Roman Catholics, In Church History, A Name Given To Those Christians Who Be Lieve The Doctrines And Submit To The Dis Cipline Of The Church Of Rome. They Are Also Called Papists, From Papa, Father, Be Cause The Bishop Of Rome Is Not Only Styled Supreme, But Cecumenical, Or Universal ...

Rope
Rope Making, Is An Art Of Very Great Importance ; And There Are Few That Bet Ter Deserve The Attention Of The Intelli Gent Observer. Hardly Any Art Can Be Carried On Without The Assistance Of The Rope-maker Cordage Makes The Very Sinews And Muscles Of A Ship ; And ...

Royal
Royal Exchange. The Term Royal, Applied To The Exchange Of London, Ori Ginated With Queen Elizabeth, A Princess Who, Though Tinctured With The Arbitrary Prejudices Of Her Time, Deserves The Grateful Remembrance Of Her Countrymen For Many Wise And Extremely Beneficial Acts, Equally Contributing To Increase The Political And Commercial ...

Royal Institution
Royal Institution. The Immediate Origin Of This Important Society Will Be Beat Explained By The Following Short Ex Tract From A Letter Written By Count Rum Ford, In 1799, To The Committee Of The Society, For "bettering The Condition Of The Poor." "inclosed I Have The Honour To Send You ...

Rule
Rule, Coggeshall's Sliding, Is Chiefly Used For Measuring The Superficies And So Lidity Of Timber, &c. It Consists Of Two Rulers, Each A Foot Long, One Of Which Slides In A Groove Made Along The Middle Of The Other. On The Sliding Side Of The Rule Are Four Ines Of ...

Rule
Rule Of Three, Golden Rule, Or Rrts Of Is One Of The Most Essential Rules Of Arithmetic ; For The Foundation Of Which See The Article Proportion. It Is Called The Rule Of Three From Having Three Numbers Given To Find A Fourth ; But, More Properly, The Rule Of ...

S Partium
S Partium, In Botany, Broom, A Genus Of The Diadelphia Decandria Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Papilionacez, Or Leguminosm. Essential Character : Calyx Produced Downwards ; Filaments Adhering To The Germ ; Stigma Longitudinal, Villose Above. There Are Twenty-seven Species. The S. Scoparium, Or Common Broom, Is Used ...

Sacbut
Sacbut, A Musical Instrument, Of The Wind Kind, Being A Sort Of Trumpet, Though Different From The Common Trum Pet Both In Form And Size : It Is Fit To Play A Bass, And Is Contrived To Be Drawn Out, Or Shortened, According To The Tone Re Quired, Whether Grave ...

Saccharum
Saccharum, In Botany, Sugar Cane, A Genus Of The Triandria Digynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Gramina, Gra Minex, Or Grasses. Essential Character : Calyx Two-valved, Involucred With A Long Lanugo ; Corolla Two-valved. There Are Eleven Species : Among Which We Shall Notice The S. Officinartim, Common Sugar ...

Saffron
Saffron. See Caocvs. Saffron Is Cultivated In Fields For Use, And Is No Where Raised With So Much Suc Cess As In England, The English Saffron Being Generally Allowed To Be Greatly Su Perior To Any Other. The Usual Way Of Propagating It Is By The Bulbs, Of Which It ...

Sale
Sale Of Goods. If A Man Agrees For The Purchase Of Goods, He Shall Pay For Them, Before He Carries Them Away, Un Less Some Term Of Credit Is Expressly Agreed Upon. If A Man, Upon The Sale Of Goods, War Rants Them To Be Good, The Law Annexes To ...

Salix
Salix, In Botany, Willow, A Genus Of The Dioecia Diandria Clsssand Order. Na Tural Order Of Amentacem. Essential Cha Racter: Calyx Ament, Composed Of Scales : Corolla None : Male, Nectary A Melliferous Gland: Female, Style Bifid ; Capsule One. Celled ; Two Valved Seeds Downy. There Are Fifty-three Species ...

Salmo
Salmo, The Adman, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Of Abdomi Nales. Generic Character : Head Smooth, Compressed ; Tongue White And Cartilagi Nous; Teeth In The Jaws And On The Tongue ; Gill-membrane From Four To Twelve-rayed ; Body Furnished At The Hind Part With ...

Salsola
Salsola, In Botany, Sate.wort, A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Holoracem. Atri Plices, Jussieu. Essential Character : Ca Lyx Five-leaved ; Corolla None ; Capsule One-seeded ; Seed Screw-shaped. There Are Thirty-one Species. These Plants Are Well Known For Producing Alkaline Salt, Commonly ...

Salt
Salt, Culinary, Or Miiriate Of Soda. This Salt Is One Of The Most Abundant Pro Ductions Of Nature, And Exists Native In Much Greater Quantity Than Any Other Neutral Salt. The Waters Of The Ocean Owe Their Saltness To It : It Is Found In A Number Of Mineral Springs, ...

Salutation
Salutation, The Act Of Saluting, Greeting, Or Paying Respect And Reverence To Any One. There Is A Great Variety In The Forms Of Salutation. The Orientala Salute By Uncovering Their Feet, Laying Their Hands On Their Breast, &c. In Eng Land, We Salute By Uncovering The Head, Bending The Body, ...

Sand
Sand, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fossils, The Characters Of Which Are, That They Are Found In Minute Concretions ; Forming Together A Kind Of Powder, The Genuine Particles Of Which Are All Of A Tendency To One Determinate Shape, And Appear Regular, Though More Or Less Com Plete ...

Santalum
Santalum, In Botany, A Genus Of The Tetrandria Monogynia Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Onagrz, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Tour•toothed ; Corolla Four-petalled, With The Petals Growing On The Calyx, Besides Tour Lands; Berry Inferior, One-seeded. There Is Only One Species, Viz. S. Album, White And Yellow ...

Satillitz11
Satillitz11 Of Jupiter, Are Four Little Moons, Or Secondary Planets, Performing Their Revolutions About Jupiter, As That Planet Does About The Sun. Simon Marius, Mathematician Of The Elector Of Brandenburgh, About The End Of November 1609, Observed Three Little Stars Moving Round Jupiter's Body, And Proceeding Along With Him ; ...

Saturn
Saturn Is A Very Conspicuous Planet, Though Not So Brilliant As Jupiter. The Period Of His Sidereal Revolution Round The Earth Is 10,759 Days. Lie Moves From West To East Nearly In The Plane Of The Ecliptic, And Exhibits Irregularities Similar To Those Of Jupiter And Mars. He Becomes Retrograde ...

Saunderson
Saunderson, (da. Ntenor...a,) In Biography, An Illustrious Professor Of Mathematics In The University Of Cam Bridge, And A Fellow Of The Royal Society, Was Born At Thurlston, In Yorkshire, In 1682 When He Was But Twelve Months Old, He Lost Not Only His Eye-sight, But His Very Eye-balls, By The ...

Sauvagesia
Sauvagesia, In Botany, So Named In Honour Of Francois Boissier De Sauvages, Professor At Montpellier, A Genus Of The Pentandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Gruinales. Essential Character: Calyx Five-leaved : Corolla Five Petalled, Fringed ; Nectary Five-leaved, Al Ternate With The Petals ; Capsule One-cell Ed. There ...

Sawing
Sawing, Dividing Timber, &c. By The Application Of A Saw, Either By The Hand Or Mill. The Mechanism Of A Sawing-mill Maybe Reduced To Three Principal Things ; The First, That The Saw Be Drawn Up And Down As Long As Is Necessary, By A Motion Communicated By Water To ...

Saxifraga
Saxifraga, In Botany, Saxifrage, A Genus Of The Decandria Digynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Succulent Z. Saxi Fragz, Jussieu. Essential Character : Ca Lyx Five-parted, Five-petalled; Capsule Two-beaked, One-celled, Many-seeded. There Are Fifty Species ; Of These We Shall Notice The S. Granulate, Or White Saxi Frage, Which ...

Saying
Saying. The Quantity Of Alloy Is Never Consi Dered As Part Of The Value Of Metals Which Contain Either Gold Or Silver. In Estimat Ing Or Expressing The Fineness Of Gold, The Whole Mass Spoken Of Is Supposed To Weigh 24 Carats Of 12 Grains Each, Either Real Or Merely ...

Scale
Scale, A Mathematical Instrument, Consisting Of Several Lines Drawn On Wood, Brass, Silver, &c. And Variously Divided, According To The Purposes It Is Intended To Serve Whence It Acquires Various De Nominations, As The Plain Scale, Diagonal Scale, Plotting Scale, Gunter's Scale, &c. See Matimiatical Instruwerrs. Diagonal, Is Projected Thus: ...

Scalz
Scalz, Gunter'8, An Instrument, So Call. Ed From Mr. Gunter, Its Inventor, Is Gene Rally Made Of Box ; There Are Two Sorts, The Long Gunter, And The Sliding Gunter, Having Both The Same Lines, But Different Ly Used, The Former With The Compasses, The Latter By Sliding. The Lines ...

Scaraexus
Scaraexus, In Natural History, The Beetle, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Co Leoptera. Generic Character : Antenna Clavate, The Club Lamellate ; Feelers Four; Fore-shanks Generally Toothed. In This Genus There Are Several Hundred Species, In Four Divisions, Which Are Distinguished By The Form Of Their S. Hercules, ...

Schorl
Schorl, In Mineralogy, A Species Of The Flint Genus, Which Is Divided By %ver Ner Into Two Sub-species, Viz. The Common Schorl And The Tourmaline. The Common Schorl Is Black. It Occurs Often Massive And Disseminated, Seldom In Rolled Pie Ces, And Frequently Cry Stallzed The Crystals Are Mostly Acicirlar ...

Science
Science, In Philosophy, Denotes Any Doctrine Deduced From Self-evident And Certain Principles, By A Regular Demon Stration. Sciences May Be Properly Divid Ed As Follows : 1. The Knowledge Of Things, Their Constitutions, Properties, And Operations ; This, In A Little More En Larged Sense Of The Word, May Be ...

Scilla
Scilla, In Botany, Squill, A Genus Of The Hexandria Monogynia Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Coronaria. As Phodeli, Josue'''. Essential Character : Corolla Six-petalled, Spreading, Deciduous; Filaments Filiform. There Are Twenty-two Species. The Most Remarkable Is S. R.j. R I Ti Ma, Or Sea Onion, Whose Roots Are ...

Sciurus
Sciurus, The Squirrel, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order (mires. Generic Character; Two Fore Teeth In The Upper Jaw Wedge-formed, Is The Lower Sharp ; Five Grinders In Each Side Of The Upper-jaw, And Four In Each Of The Lower ; Clavicles In The Skeleton ...

Scolopendra
Scolopendra, In Natural History, Centipede, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Aptera. Antenna Setaceous ; Two Feel Ers Filiform, United Between The Jaws ; Lip Toothed And Cleft ; Body Long, Depress Ed, Consisting Of Numerous Transverse Segments: Legs Numerous, As Many On Each Side As There Are Segments ...

Scomber
Scomber, The Mackerel, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Thoracici. Generic Character : Head Compressed, Smooth ; Gill Membrane With Seven Rays; Body Smooth, Oblong ; Lateral Line Carinate Behind ; Small Fins, Generally, Both Above And Below, Near The Tail. There Are Twenty-one Spe Cies, ...

Scotland
Scotland. By 5 Anne. C. 8, The Uni On Of England And Scotland Was Effect Ed, And The Twenty-five Articles Of Union, Agreed To By The Parliaments Of Both Na Tions, Were Ratified And Confirmed As Fol Lows: Vi:. The Succession To The Monarchy Of Great Britain Shall Be The ...

Scotograph
Scotograph, An Instrument To En Able A Person To Write In The Dark, Invent Ed By Mr. John Isaac Hawkins, And In Cluded In A Patent Taken Out By Him In 1803 For Several Other Inventions Relating To The Graphic Art. Plate Scotograph Explains The Construc Tion Of This Instrument. ...

Sculpture
Sculpture. It Is Beyond Human Research To Ascertain When This Art Was First Practised, And By What Nation. We Nay, However, Safely Conjecture That It Was Almost One Of The Original Propensi: Ties Of Man, And May Be Said To Have Been Born With Him In Every Climate. This Will ...

Scythrops
Scythrops, The Channel-bill, In Na Tural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Or Der Pica. Generic Character : The Bill Large, Convex, Cultrated, Furrowed At The Sides, Hooked At The Tip ; Nostrils Round, Naked At The Base Of The Bill ; Tongue Can Tilaginous, Split At The Point ...

Seamen
Seamen, Such As Are Reserved To Serve The King, Or Other Persons At Sea, Who May Not Depart Without License. &c. Seamen Fighting, Quarrelling. Or Making Any Disturbance, May Be Punished, By The Commissioners Of The Navy, With Fine And Imprisonment. Registered Seamen Are Exempted From Serving In Any Parish ...

Sebacic
Sebacic Acid, The Acid Of Fat. The Penetrating Fumes Which Are Exhaled From Melted Tallow, And Which Affect The Eyes, The Nostrils, And Even The Lung!, Had Been Long Ago Observed. Little At Tention, However, Was Paid To Their Nature And Properties. In 1754, Appeared A Dis Sertation By M. ...

Secretary
Secretary, An Officer, Who By His Master's Orders Writes Letters, Despatches, And Other Instruments, Which He Renders Authentic By His Signet. Of These There Are Several Kinds ; As, I. .secretaries Of State, Who Are Officers That Have Under Their Management And Direction The Most Important Affairs Of The Kingdom, ...

Sedum
Sedum, In Botany, Etenecrep, A Genus Of The Decandria Pentagynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Succulents. Sempervivx, Jussieu. Essential Charac Ter: Calyx Five-cleft ; Corolla Five-petalled ; Scales Nectariferous, Five, At The Base Of The Germ ; Capsules Five. There Are Thirty Species, All Of Which Are Hardy, Herabceous, ...

Segment
Segment Of A Lire*, In Geometry, That Part Of The Circle Contained Between A Chord And An Arch Of The Same Circle. Samuer Of U Sphere, Is A Part Of A Sphere Terminated By A Portion Of Its Sur Face, And S'plane Which Cuts It Off, Pass Ing Somewhere Owt ...

Sempn
Semp.n. See Physiology Semen Is Secreted In The Testes Of Male Animals; But When It Is Ejected It Is Composed Of Two Substances ; The One Is Fluid And Milky, And The Other Of A Thick Mucilagi Nous Consistence, In Which Appear A Great Number Of White, Silky Filaments, Especi ...

Sensation
Sensation. The Brain Is A Soft Pul Py Mass, Of A Whitish Colour On The Inside, Occupying All The Cavity Of The Skull. Minute Differences Are Observable In The Substance Of The Brain In Different Parts Of It, But It Is Unnecessary To Enter Upon A Statement Of Them Here. ...

Sensations
Sensations. Vision. The Mode In Which The Rays Of Light Are Affected, In Passing Through The Various Parts Of The Eye, Is Explained Un Der The Article Orgies. See Also Visrox. We Have Only To Add A Few Remarks On The Physiology Of The Eye. The Quantity Of Light That ...