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Sense
Sense. The Parts Subservient To The Animal Functions, Which, Constituting The Leading Character Of Animals, Have Derived Their Name From That Circumstance, Afford To Our Observation A More Clear And Manifest Gradation, From The Most Simple To The Most Compound Structure, Than Any Others In The Animal Economy. In Some ...

Septuagint
Septuagint, The Name Given To A Greek Version Of The Books Of The Old Testament, From Its Being Supposed To Be Performed By Seventy-two Jews, Who Are Usually Called The Seventy Interpre. Ters, Because Seventy Is A Round Number. The History Of This Version Is Expressly Written By Aristeas, An ...

Serge
Serge, In Commerce, A Woollen Stuff Manufactured In A Loom, Of Which There Are Various Kinds, Denominated Either From Their Different Qualities, Or From The Places Where They Are Wrought; The Most Considerable Of Which Is The English Serge, Which Is Highly Valued Abroad, And Of Which A Manufacture Had ...

Series
Series, Summation Of. We Have Be Fore Seen The Method Of Determining The Sums Of Quantities In Arithmetical And Geometrical Progression. But When The Terms Increase Or Decrease, According To Other Laws, Different Artifices Must Be Used To Obtain General Expressions For Their Sum. The Methods Chiefly Adopted, And Which ...

Series
Series, Infinite, Is A Series Consisting Of An Infinite Number Of Terms, That Is, To The End Of Which It Is Impossible Ever To Come; So That Let The Series Be Carried On To Any Assignable Length, Or Number Of Terms, It Can Be Carried Yet Further, With Out End, ...

Sesamum
Sesamum, In Botany, Sesatnum, Or Oily Grain, A Genus Of The D,dynamia Angios Permia Class And Order Natural Order Of Luridn. Bignonix, Jussieu Essential Character : Calyxfive-parted : Corolla Bell Shaped, Five-cleft, The Lower Lobe Larger ; Rudiment Of A Fifth Filament ; Stigma Lan Ceolate ; Capsule Four-celled. There ...

Sesuvium
Sesuvium, In Botany, A Genus Of The Icosandria Trigynia Class And Order. Na Tural Order Of Succulents:. Ficoidez, Jos Aim Essential Character: Calyx Five.part Ed, Coloured : Petals None : Capsule Ovate, Three-celled, Cut Round, Many-seeded. There Is Only One Species, Viz. S Portula Castrum, A Native Of The West ...

Sewer
Sewer. Is Also A Passage Or Gutter Made To Carry Water Into The Sea Or A River, Whereby To Preserve The Land, &c. From Inundations And Other Annoyances. The Business Of The Commissioners Of Sewers, Or Their Office In Particular, Is To Repair Scabanks And Walls, Survey Rivers, Public Streams, ...

Sexual
Sexual System, In Botany, T Hat S) Stem Of Classification Which Was Inviinted By The Immortal Limeetis, Professor Of Physic And Botany, At Upsal, In Sweden. It Is Foonded On The Parts Of Fructification, Viz. The Sta Mens And Pistils ; These Having Been Oh. Served With More Accuracy Since ...

Shadow
Shadow, In Optics, A Privation Or Di Minution Of Light By The Interposition Of An Opaque Body ; Or It Is A Plane, Where The Light Is Eithe R Altogetherobstructed, Or Greatly Weakened, By The Interposition Of Some Opaque Body Between It And The Luminary. A Shadow Of Itself Is ...

Sheep
Sheep, In Zoology, A Well-known Ge Nus Of Quadrupeds, The Horns Of Which Are Hollow, Bent Backward, Twisted, And Rugose ; The Fore-teeth Are Eight, And The Binder Ones Are Narrower Than The Others: There Are No Canine Or Dog-teeth. See Orig. Sassy. Any Person Who Shall Felonious Ly Drive ...

Shell
Shell, A Substance Of A Stony Hard Ness, Composed Of Carbonate Of Lime, Va Riously Comb Ned With Animal Gluten, And Serving For The Coverings And Habitations Of Different Animals, Mostly Of The Order Of Mollusca; Allowing Of The Occasional Protrusion Of Part Of Their Naked Body. The Various Forms, ...

Sheriff
Sheriff. As Keeper Of The King's Peace, The Sheriff Is The First Man In The County, And Superior In Rank To Any Noble. Man Therein, During His Office. He May Apprehend And Commit To Prison All Per Sons Who Break The Peace, Or Attempt To Break It, And May Bind ...

Ship
Ship Building. The Man Of Science And The Practical Shipwright Have Long La Mented, That In The Theory Of The Art Of Shipbuilding There Are So Few Fixed And Positive Principles Established By Demon Stration, Or Confirmed By Practice ; Thus The Artist, Being Left To The Exercise Of His ...

Shore
Shore, A Place Washed By The Sea, Or By Some Large River. Count Marsigli Di Vides The Sea-shore Into Three Portions ; The First Of Which Is That Tract Of Land Which The Sea Just Reaches In Storms And High Tides, But. Which It Never Covers ; The Second Part ...

Shot
Shot, Common, Small, Or That Used For Fowling, Should Be Well Sized: For, Should It Be Too Great, Then It Hies Thin And Scat Ters Too Much : Or If Too Small, Then It Has Not Weight And Strength To Penetrate Far, And The Bird Is Apt To Ay Away ...

Siege
Siege, In The Art Of War, The En Campment Of An Army Before A Fortified Place, With A Design To Take It. The Method Of Encamping Is Very Different In A Siege From That Observed On A March ; As In The Former The Army Envi Rons The Place Without ...

Sight
Sight, Sense Of. The Organ Of Sight Is A Globular Body, Which Contains Within It Transparent Substances, Fitted To Form On The Back Part Of It A Picture Of The Ob Ject Of Sight. An Examination Of The Eye Of An Ox Will Give A Pretty Accurate Idea Of The ...

Signals
Signals, Certain Signs Agreed Upon, For Suddenly Conveying Intelligence To Places To Which The Voice Cannot Reach. Thus, In Some Countries, Fires Are Lighted Upon The Hills, At The Approach Of Danger : And At The Beginning Of A Battle Or An At Tack, Signals Are Usually Made With Drums ...

Signals_2
Signals, In Military Actions. In Former Times Large Pieces Of Wood Were Hung Above The Towers Of Cities Or Castles, Which, By Being Drawn Up Or Lowered, Gave Intelligence Of What Passed. This Method Has Been Succeeded By The In Vention Of Telegraphs, Which Answer Every Purpose Of Communication, When ...

Silica
Silica, In Mineralogy And Chemistry, Is Generally Found In A Stony State, And, From Its Forming Nearly The Entire Compo Sition Of Flint, It Has Acquired The Name Of Silica, Silex, Or Silicious Earth. This Earth Exists In Great Abundance In Nature, And It Constitutes The Basis Of Some Of ...

Silk
Silk, The Web Or Envelopement Of The Caterpillar, Of A Species Of Moth Called The Phalena Mori ; Which, Being Converti Ble To Various Purposes Of Utility And Elegance, Forms An Important Article In Commerce, As The.material Of A Valuable Manufacture. The Caterpillar, Or Silk Worm, When Full Grown, Encloses ...

Silpha
Silpha, In Natural History, The Carrion Beetle. Antenna Clavate ; The Club Perfo Hate ; Shells Margined ; Head Prominent ; Thorax Somewhat Flattened, Margined. There Are About 140 Species, Divided Into Sections. A. Lip Dilated, Bifid ; Jaw-one. Toothed. 13. Lip Rounded, Entire; Jaw One-toothed. C. Lip Horny, Entire ...

Silver
Silver, Which Is Divided By Mineralo Gists Into Three Species, The Native, Anti Monis!, And The Arsenical, Has Been Rec Koned Among The Noble Or Perfect Me Tals, And Has Been Known From The Earliest Ages Of The World. Its Scarcity, Beauty, And Utility, Have Always Rendered It An Object ...

Silvering
Silvering, In The Arta, Consists In Covering The Surfaces Of Substances With A Thin Coating Of Silver; Either For The Purpose Of Beauty, Silver Being So Much More Handsome Than The Inferior Me Tals; Or, On Account Of Its Superior Whole Someness, Compared With Copper, Brass, Or Lead, For Culinary ...

Simia
Simia, The Ape, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Pri Mates. Generic Character: Front Teeth In Each Jaw Four, Near Together ; Canine Teeth Solitary, Longer Than The Others, Dis Tant From The Grinders ; Grinders Obtuse. Animals Of This Genus Are Commonly Di Vided Into ...

Similar
Similar, In Arithmetic And Geometry, The Same With Like. Those Things Are Said To Be Similar, Or Like, Which Cannot Be Distinguished But By Their Compre. Sence, That Is, Either By Immediately Ap Plying The One To The Other, Or Some Other Third To Them Both, So That There Is ...

Simony
Simony, Is The Corrupt Presentation Of Any One To An Ecclesiastical Benefice, For Money, Gift, Reward, Or Benefit. It Was Not An Offence Punishable Criminally At The Common Law, It Being Thought Suf Ficient To Leave The Clerk To Ecclesiastical Censures. But As These Did Not Affect The Simoniacal Patron, ...

Simoom
Simoom. A Wind Or Haze Was Ob Served By Mr. Bruce, In The Course Of His Travels To Discover The Sources Of The Nile, Which Is Supposed To Be In Some Re Spects Analogous To The Sirocco. It Is Called By Him The Simoom, And From Its Effects Upon The ...

Simson
Simson (da. Ransil-0, In Biography, Professor Of Mathematics In The Universi Ty Of Glasgow, Was Born In The Year 1687, Of A Respectable Family, Which Had Held A Small Estate In The County Of Lanark For Some Generations. He Was, We Think, The Second Son Of The Family. A Younger ...

Sinking Fund
Sinking Fund, A Portion Of The Pub Lic Revenue Set Apart, To Be Applied To The Reduction Or Discharge Of The Public Debts. The Appropriation Of A Part Of The Revenue To This Purpose Is A Measure Which Had Been Adopted In Other Coun Tries Long Before Any Necessity For ...

Sion
Sion. Adhesion May Take Place Either Be Tween Two Solids, As Two Hemispheres Of Glass, Which, According To An Experiment Of Desaguliers, Adhere To Each Other With A Force Eqoal To 19ounces On A Surface Of Contact One-tenth Of An Inch In Diameter ; Or Between Solids And Fluids, As ...

Sion_2
Sion. All Substances In Nature, As Far As We Are Acquainted With Them, Occur In One Or Other Of The Three Following States ; Namely, The State Of Solids, Of Liquids, Or Of Elastic Fluids Or Vapours. It Has Been Ascertained, That In Avast Number Of Cases, The Same Substance ...

Sir Hicivry Saville
Saville, (sir Hicivry,) In Biography, A Very Learned Englishman, The Second Son Of Henry Saville, Esq. Was Born At Bradley, Near Halifax, In Yorkshire, No Vember The 3uth, 1549. He Was Entered Of Merton College, Oxford, In 1561, Where He Took The Degrees In Arts, And Was Chosen Fellow. When ...

Siren
Siren. The Nantes, Or Swimming Amphibia, Characterized By Their Having Fins, And By Breathing By Means Of Lateral Gills, Were Afterwards Distributed Into The Or Ders Of Fishes Denominated Branchiostigi, And Chondropterygii; Which Have Since Been Ranked By Dr. Shaw, And Others, Under The General Term Cartilaginous Fishes. See Crrondropterigiovs. ...

Siren_2
Siren, In Natural History, A Genus Of Amphibia, Of The Order Reptiles, Or Of The Order Meantes, An Order Instituted By Linnzus On Account Of This Genus Of Ani Mals Alone. Generic Character : Body Naked, With Two Feet, And Without A Tail ; Feet With Arms And Nails. S. ...

Skating
Skating, An Exercise On Ice, Both Graceful And Healthy.. Although The An. Cients Were Remarkable For Their Dexte Rity In Most Of The Athletic Sports. Vet Skating Seems To Have Been Unknown To Them. It May Therefore Be Considered As A Modern Invention, And Probably It Derived Its Origin In ...

Skeleton Of Birds
Skeleton Of Birds. The Skull, Which In The Adult Has No Sutures, Is Articulated To The Spine By A Single Rounded Condyle. This Structure Gives The Head A Great Freedom Of Motion, Particularly In The Horizontal Direction. It Enables The Bird To Place Its Bill Be Tween The Wings When ...

Skeleton Of Mammilia
Skeleton Of Mammilia. The Form Of The Different Mammalia, Particularly The Four Footed Ones, Varies Considerably ; And Their Skeletons Must Be Marked By Corresponding Differen Ces. Yet These Varieties May Be Includ Ed, At Least For The Greatest Part, Under The Following Peculiarities ; Which Serve To Distinguish Their ...

Skeleton Of The Amphibia
Skeleton Of The Amphibia. Turtles And Tortoises Have No Teeth : But Their Jaws Are Covered With A Horny Substance, Somewhat Resembling The Horse's Hoof In The Mode Of Its Connection With The Bone. The Cavity Containing The Brain Is Extremely Small In Comparison With The Size Of The Skull. ...

Slate
Slate, A Well Known, Neat, Convenient And Durable Material, For The Covering Of The Roofs Of Buildings. There Are Great Varieties Of This Substance, And It Likewise Differs Very Greatly In Its Qualities And Co Lours In Some Places It Is Found In Thick Laminz Or Flakes, While In Others ...

Slaves
Slaves And Slavery. Pure And Proper Slaves Do Not. Nay Cannot, Subsist In England ; Such, That Is, Whereby An Ab Solute And Unlimited Power Is Given To The Master Over The Life And Fortune Of The Slave, And Indeed It Is Repugnant To Reason, That Such A State Should ...

Sluice
Sluice, In Hydraulics, A Frame Of Timber, Stone, Earth, &c. Serving To Retain And Raise The Water Of The Sea, A River, &c. And On Occasion To Let It Pass: Such Is The Sluice Of A Mill, Which Stops And Col Lects The Water Of A Rivulet, &c. In Order ...

Smeaton
Smeaton, (joan,) In Biography, An Eminent Civil Engineer, Was Born The 28th Of May, 1724, 0. S. At Austhorpe, Near Leeds, In A House Built By His Grandfather, And Where His Family Have Resided Ever Since. The Strength Of His Understanding And The Originality Of His Genius Appeared At An ...

Smilax
Smilax, In Botany, A Genus Of The Dioecia Hexandria Class And Order. Na Tural Order Of Sarmentacez. Asparagi, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Six Leaved ; Corolla None ; Female, Styles Three; Berry Three-celled ; Seeds Two. There Are Twenty-three Species ; Of These, The S. Sarsaparilla, Which Affords The ...

Smoke
Smoke Jack, Is A Very Simple And Com Modious Machine In A Kitchen , So Called, From Its Being Moved By Means Of The Smoke, Or Rarefied Air, Moving Up The Chimney, And Striking Against The Tail Of The Horizontal Wheel, Which, Being In. Dined To The Horizon, Is Thereby ...

Snow
Snow, A Well Known Substance, Form. Ed By The Freezing Of The Vapours In The Atmosphere. It Differs From Hail And Hoar-frost, In Being As It Were Crystal Lized, Which They Are Not. This Appears On Examining A Flake Of Snow By A Mag Nifying Glass ; When The Whole ...

Snow_2
Snow Grotto, An Excavation Made By The Waters On The Aide Of Mount Etna, By Making Their Way Under The Layers Of Lava, And By Carrying Away The Bed Of Puzzolana Below Them. It Occurred To The Proprietor, That This Place Was Very Suitable For A Magazine Of Snow ; ...

Soap
Soap, A Composition Of Caustic Fixed Alkaline Salt And Oil, Or Other Grease. It Is Sometimes Hard And Dry, Sometimes Soft And Liquid ; Much Used In Washing, And Other Purposes, As Well In The Arts And Manufactures As In Domestic Pur Poses. The Manufacture Of Soap In And Near ...

Society
Society, Royal, Had Its Origin From The Voluntary Intercourse Of Learned Men, Who Conceived That Their Pursuits Might Be Improved And Forwarded By The Com Munication Of Their Thoughts And Obser Vations To Each Other During Their Leisure Hours. Dr. Wilkins, Of Wadham College, Oxford, Who Entertained The Resident Philosophers ...

Soda
Soda, In Mineralogy And Chemistry, Is A Species Of Fossil Salts, Divided By Mine Ralogists Into Common And Radiated Na Tron. Common Natron Is Of A Yellowish Frey Colour : It Occurs In Fine Hakes, Or In Dusty Particles; It Has A Sharp Alkaline Taste ; Effervesces With Nitric Acid ...

Soho
Soho, The Name Of A Set Of Works, Or Manufactory Of A Variety Of Hard Wares, Belonging To Mr. Boulton, Situated On The Borders Of Staffordshire, Within Two Miles Of Birmingham, Now So Justly Celebrated As To Claim A Short Notice In This Place. About Thirty Or Forty Years Ago, ...

Solanum
Solanum, In Botany, Nightshade, A Genus Of The Pentandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Luridw. Solaneic, Jussieu. Essential Character : Corolla Wheel-shaped ; Anthers Subcoa Lescent, Opening At Top By A Double Pore Berry Two-celled. There Are Ninety Three Species, Of Which The Following Are The Most Remarkable. ...

Song
Song Of Bird*. The Song Of Birds Has Been Defined To Be A Succession Of Three Or Four Different Notes, Which Are Con Tinued Without Interruption Through The Same Intervals, In A Bar Of Four Crotchets, Adagio, Or While A Pendulum Swings Four Seconds. It Is Observed, That Notes In ...

Sophism
Sophism, In Logic, &c. An Argument Which Carries Much Of The Appearance Of Truth, And Yet Leads Into Error. There Is Some Need Of A Particular Description Of These Fallacious Arguments, That We May With More Ease And Readiness Detect And Solve Them. 1. The First Sort Of Sophism Is ...

Sorex
Sorex, The Shrew, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia Of The Order Pe Rm. Generic Character: In The Upper Jaw Two Front Teeth Long And Bifid ; In The Low Er Two Or Four, The Intermediate Ones Shorter ; Several Tusks On Each Side ; Grin Ders Cuspidated. This ...

Sounding
Sounding, The Operation Of Trying The Depth Of The Water, And The Quality Of The Ground, By Means Of A Plummit Stink From A Ship To The Bottom. For Sounding There' Arc Two Plummits Used, One Of Which Is Called The Hand Lead, Weighing About Eight Or Nine Pounds ; ...

Soup
Soup, A Strong Decoction Of Flesh Or Other Substances. Portable Or Dry Soup Is A Kind Of A Cake, Formed By Boiling The Gelatinous Parts Of Animal Substances Till The Watery Parts Are Evaporated. This Species Of Soup Is Cheafly Used At Sea, And Has Been Found Of Great Advantage. ...

Sp Ec Ies L
Sp Ec Ies. L H. Albolabris. Shell Thin, Fragile ; Convex, Imperforated ; With Six Volutions, Whorls Obtusely Wrinkled Across, And Spi Rally Striated With Very Fine Impressed Lines, A Little Waved By Passing Over The Wrinkles, Both Becoming Extinct To Wards The Apex, Which Is Perfectly Smooth ; Aperture ...

Space
Space, Is Defined By Mr. Locke To Be A Simple Idea, Which We Attain Both By Our Sight And Touch; The Modes Whereof Are Distance, Capacity, Extension, Duration, &c. Space,considered Barely In Length Between Two Bodies, Is The Same Idea Which We Have Of Distance. If It Be Considered In ...

Spar
Spar, A Name Given To Those Earths Which Break Easily Into Rhomboidal, Cu Bical, Or Laminated Fragments, With Po Lished Surfaces. As The Term Spar Is Thus Applied To Stones Of Different Kinds, With Out Any Regard To The Ingredients Of Which They Are Composed, Some Additional Term Must Be ...

Spar_2
Spar, Cube, Is Of A Milk-white Colour, Which Passes Sometimes Into A Greyish White, And Even Into A Reddish-white. It Is Massive ; The Lustre Is Shining, Passing To Splendent, And Perfectly Pearly. The Are Cubical. Specific Gravity Is 2.9. It Is Found In Salt Rocks In The Archbishoprick Of ...

Species
Species, In Logic, A Relative Term, Ex Pressing An Idea Which Is Comprised Un Der Some General One, Called A Genus. The Idea Of A Species Is Formed, By Adding A New Idea To The Retina: Thus If The Ge Nus Be A Circumscribed Space, And We Sup Pose This ...

Species 0
Species. 0. Orbiculata. Shell Subglobular ; Spire Not Prominent, But More Than Convex ; Lateral Line Somewhat Convex ; Whorls Five, Obsoletely Striated Across, Regularly Rounded, Colour Pale, Greenish, Yellowish, Or Slightly Tinted With Reddish, Particu Larly On The Body, And Margined Above By An Obsolete Whitd Line, On The ...

Species 1
Species. 1. ?arginata. Shell Transversely Ob. Long Sub-oval, White, Covered With An Olive Brown Epidermis, Obsoletely Radiate With Green, Numerous Concentrie Wrink. Les ; Umbo With About Three Concentric Undulations ; Ligament Slope Abruptly De• Pressed, With Numerous, Obtuse, Oblique Rum Decussating The Concentric Ones Which Are Obsolete In That ...

Species 1 5
Species. 1. 5: Campestris. Shell Oval, Very Fragile; Whorls Three, Not Remarkably Oblique, Pale Yellowish, With Opaque White, And Vitreous Lines, Irregularly Alternating. Length Not Quite Three-fifths ; Breadth Seven-twentieths Of An Inch. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. I. P. 281. This Shell Is Extremely Common In Ma Ny Parts ...

Species 1 C
Species. 1. C. Shell Suborbicular Vex, Base A Little Flattened; With Nearly Equidistant, Raised, Concentric Lines, Giv Ing A Slightly Sulcated Appearance To The Surface, And Generally A More Conspicu Ous Elevated Darker Wave, Marking The Former Year's Growth Of The Shell. Epi Dermis Brown Or Ferruginous ; Beak Near ...

Species 1 P
Species. 1. P. Auriculata. Shell Beneath Convex; Whorls Five, A Little Rounded, Crossed By Numerous Raised Equidistant Lines, Form Ing Grooves Between Them ; Spire Very Little Raised ; Lateral Line (extending From The Outer Whorl To The Apex) Not Convex, But Somewhat Concave ; Mouth Very Une Qual; Lips ...

Species 1 P_2
Species. 1. P. Trivolvis. Shell Sinistral Pale Yellow, Brownish Or Chesnut Colour, Sub Carinate Above And Beneath, Particularly In The Young Shell ; Whorls Three Or Four, Striate Across With Fine, Raised, Equi-dis. T Ant, Acute Lines, Forming Grooves Between Them. Spire Concave ; Aperture Large, Embracing A Considerable Portion ...

Species 1 U
Species. 1. U. Crams. Shell Varying In Form And Surface ; Remarkably Thick And Pon Derous ; Epidermis Horn-colour, Different Shades Of Brown Or Black ; Beaks Carious, Often Much Eroded, Pure Parlaceous, Or Silvery White, More Prominent As The Shell Approaches An Orbicular Form ; Primary Teeth, Not Very ...

Species 1 A
Species. 1. A. Cataracta. Shell Thin, Fragile, Translucent, Oblong Oval, Convex, Cover. Ed With A Green Olive, Radiated, Epider Mis, Within Perlaceous ; Beaks Nearer Central, Frontal Margin Brown. ' Length, Two Inches And Two-fifths : Breadth, Four Inches And An Half: Conca Vity Of One Valve Nearly Seven-eighths Of ...

Species C
Species. C. Caroliniensis. Shell Cordate, Turgid, Brown On The Disk, With A Yellowish Or Greenish Margin And Sub-margin, Surface With Numerous Membranaceous Wrin Kles ; Umbo Much Eroded ; Beaks Distant; Two Of The Primary Teeth Caniliculate At Tip. Length, One Inch And One-fourth ; Breadth, One Inch And Seven-twentieths. ...

Species I
Species. I. • P. Limosa. Shell Conic, Subumbili Cate, Dark Horn Coloured, Generally In Crusted With A Blackish Irregular Covering On The Spire, And Sometimes On The Body, Which Completely Obscures The Obsolete. Ly Wrinkled Epidermis ; Aperture Ovate Orbicular; Suture Impressed. Length Three-twentieths, Breadth One Tenth, Of An Inch. ...