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Spectrum
Spectrum, In Optics. When A Ray Of Light Is Admitted Through A Small Hole, And Received On A White Surface, It Forms A Luminous Spot. If A Dense, Transparent Body Be Interposed, The Light Will Be Re Fracted, In Proportion To The Density Of The Medium ; But If A ...

Spermaceti
Spermaceti Is Found In The Head Of The Physeter Macrocephalus, A Species Of Whale ; It Is Obtained In An Unctuous Mass, From Which Oil Is Obtained By Ex Pression. Spermaceti Is Also Found In Other Cetaceous 'fishes, And In Other Parts Of The Body, Mixed With The Oil. It ...

Sphere
Sphere, Is A Solid Contained Under One Uniform Round Surface, Such As Would Be Formed By The Revolution Of A Circle About A Diameter Thereof, As An Axis. Thus The Circle Ae, Bd (see Plate Xiv. Miscel. Fig. 2.) Revolving About The Diame Ter Ab, Will Generate A Sphere, Whose ...

Sphere_2
Sphere, Properties Of The. 1. All Spheres Are To One Another As The Cubes Of Their Diameters. 2. The Surface Of A Sphere Is Equal To Four Times The Area Of One Of Its Great Circles, As Is Demonstrated By Archimedes In His Book Of The Sphere And Cylinder, Lib. ...

Spheroid
Spheroid, In Geometry, A Solid, Ap Proaching To The Figure Of A Sphere. The Spheroid Is Generated By The En Tire Revolution Of A Semi-ellipsis About Its Axis. Thus, If The Semi-ellinsis Auf11 (plate Rm. Miscel. Fig. 6.) Be Supposed To Revolve Round Its Transverse Axis Ab, It Will Generate ...

Sphex
Sphex, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Hymenoptera. Mouth With An Entire Jaw, The Mandibles Horny, Incurved, Toothed ; Lip Horny, Membrana Ceous At The Tip ; Four Feelers ; Antenna With About Ten Articulations ; Wings, In Each Sex, Plane, Incumbent, And Not Fold Ed; ...

Sphinx
Sphinx, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Lepidop Tera. Antenna Somewhat Prismatic, Ta Pering At Each End ; Tongue Mostly Ex Serted ; Two Feelers, Reflected; Wings Deflected. There Are About Two Hundred Species ; These Fly Abroad In The Morning And Evening, Are Very Slow ...

Spiral
Spiral, In Geometry, A Curve Line Of The Circular Kind, Which, In Its Progress, Recedes From Its Centre. A Spiral, According To Archimedes, Its Inventor, Is Thus Generated : If A Right Line, As Ab, (plate Miscel. Xiv. Fig. 9.) Having One End Fixed At B, Be Equally Moved Round, ...

Spleen On The Lived
On The Lived, Spleen, And Omen Tun. • The Spleen And Omentum Seem To Be Less Constantly Found In The Animal Kingdom Than The Liver, And To Be In A Manner Subservient To The Latter Viscus ; Which, On The Contrary, Exists In Every Class And Order Of Animals That ...

Spongia
Spongia, In Natural History, Sponge, A Genus Of The Vermes Zoophyte Class And Order: Animal Fixed, Torpid, Of Various Forms, Composed Either Of Reticulate Fi Bres, Or Masses Of Small Spines, Interwo Ven Together, And Clothed With Gelatinous Flesh, Full Of Small Mouths On Its Surface, By Which It Absorbs ...

Sporting
Sporting. Although We Have Not Omitted To Notice What Generally Apper Tains To The Winged, Finny, Or Quadruped Parts Of Nature, It Appeared To Us Better To Collect The Whole Of The Matter Relat Ing To Sporting, In General, Under One Head ; Thereby To Preclude The Necessity For Reverting ...

Spring
Spring, In Natural History, A Fountain Or Source Of Water, Rising Out Of The Ground. Various Have Been The Opinions Of Philosophers Concerning The Origin Of Springs; But Those Which Deserve Notice Are Only The Three Following Ones : 1. That The Sea Water Is Conveyed Through Subterraneous Ducts, Or ...

Spring_2
Spring, In Mechanics, Denotes A Thin Piece Of Tempered Steel, Or Other Elastic Substance : Which Being Wound Up, Serves To Put Several Machines In Motion By Its Elasticity, Or Endeavour To Unbend Itself; Such Is The Spring Of A Clock, Watch, And The Like. The Spring Of A Lock, ...

Squalus
Squalus, The Shark, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Car Tilaginei. Generic Character : Mouth Un Der The Fore Part Of The Head, With Teeth Disposed In Rows, And Partly Moveable And Partly Fixed; Generally Five Spiracles, At The Sides Of The Neck, Of A ...

Square
Square, In Feometry, A Quadrilateral Figure, Both Equilateral And Equiangular. To Find The Area Of A Square, Seek The Length Of One Side ; Multiply This By Itself, And The Product Is The Area Of The Square. Sayeat Number, The Product Of A Num Ber Multiplied Into Itself. Thus 4, ...

Standard
Standard, In War, A Sort Of Banner, Or Flag, Borne As A Signal For The Joining Together Of The Several Troops Belonging To The Same Body. The Standard Is Usual Ly A Piece Of Silk, A Foot And A Half Square, On Which Are Embroidered The Arms, De Vice, Or ...

Star
Star, In Pyrotechny, A Composition Of Combustible Matters, Which, Being Thrown Aloft In The Air, Exhibits The Appearance Of A Real Star. Stars Are Chiefly Used As Ap Pendages To Rockets, A Number Of Them Being Usually Inclosed In A Conical Cap Or Cover, At The Head Of The Rocket, ...

Star
Star, In Astronomy, A General Name For All The Heavenly Bodies Which Are Dispersed Throughout The Whole Heavens. The Stars Are Distinguished From The Phenomena Of Their Motion, &c. Into Fix Ed And Erratic Or Wandering Stars ; These Last Are Again Distinguished Into The Great Er Luminaries, Viz. The ...

Starch
Starch. This Term Is Appropriated To A Substance Existing In Vegetables, Simi Lar In Many Of Its Properties To Gum. It Is A Dry, White Powder, Which Forms The Principal Part Of The Nutritive Grains And Roots. If A Paste Be Formed Of Wheaten Flour And Water, And This Be ...

Statics
Statics, A Term Which The Modern Improvements In Knowledge Have Made It Xecessary To Introduce Into Physico-ma Thematical Science. It Was Found Conveni Ent To Distribute The Doctrines Of Univer Sal Mechanics Into Two Classes, Which Re Quired Both A Different Mode Of Considera Tion, And Different Principles Of Reasoning. ...

Statistics
Statistics, A Modern Term Adopted To Express A More Comprehensive View Of The Various Particulars, Constituting The Natural And Political Strength And Re Sources Of A Country, Than Was Usually Embraced By Writers On Political Arith Metic. Its Principal Objects Are, The Tent And Population Of A State ; The ...

Status
Status% Antique. The Denomination Of Antique Statues Is Applicable To All An Cient Statues, Found Either In India, Egypt, &c But Is Especially Given, In Pre Ference, To The Statues Wrought By The Ancient Greek And Roman Sculptors. The Works Ot' The Grecians Are Consider Ed As The Most Perfect ...

Statutks
Statutks, Construction Of, Comprehends The Following Rules : 1. In The Construc Tion Of Remedial Statutes, There Are Three Points Which Require Consideration, Viz. The Old Law, The Mischief, And The Remedy; That Is, How The Common Law Stood At The Making Of The Act ; What The Mischief Was, ...

Steam
Steam Engine, An Engine For Raising Water, Or For Producing Any Powerful Ef Fect In Moving Machinery, &c. By The Force Of Steam Obtained From Boiling Wa Ter. It Is Often Called A Fire-engine, On Account, Perhaps, Of The Fire Employed In Heating The Water, In Order To Throw Off ...

Sterna
Sterna, The Tern, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Anseres. Generic Character: Bill Straight, Pointed, And Slender; Nostrils Linear; Tongue Slender And Pointed ; Wings Very Long ; Back Toe Small; Tail Forked. There Are Twenty-five Species. The Following Are The Principal : S. Caspia, Or ...

Stewart
Stewart, (the Rev. Dr. Merrnaw,) In Biography, Late Professor Of Mathema Tics In The University Of Edinburgh, Was The Son Of The Rev. Mr. Dugald Stewart, Minister Of Rothsay, In The Isle Of Bute, And Was Born At That Place In The Year 1717. After Having Finished His Course At ...

Stone
Stone (eli:erste), In Biography, A Dis Tinguished Self-taught Mathematician, Was Born In Scotland ; But Neither The Place Nor Time Of His Birth Is Well Known ; Nor Have We Any Memoirs Of His Life, Ex Cept A Letter From The Chevalier De Ram Say, Author Of The "travels Of ...

Stonehenge
Stonehenge, A Celebrated Monu Ment Of Antiquity, Stands In The Middle Of A Flat Area, Near The Summit Of A Hill Six Miles Distant From Salisbury. It Is In Closed By A Circular Double Bank And Ditch, Near Thirty Feet Broad, After Cross Ing Which We Ascend 30 Yards Before ...

Strata
Strata, In Natural History, The Seve Ral Beds Or Layers Of Different Matters Whereof The Earth Is Composed. The Strata, Whereof The Earth Is Composed, Are So Very (were Nt In Different Countries, That It Is Impossible To Say Any Thing Concern Ing Them, That May Be Generally Applica Ble: ...

Strength
Strength, In Physiology, The Same With Force. Men May Apply Their Strength Several Ways In Working A Machine. A Man Of Ordinary Strength, Turning A Roller By The Handle, Can Act For A Whole Day Against A Resistance Equal To Thirty Pounds Weight : And If He Works Ten Hours ...

Strix
Strix, The Owl, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Accipitres. Generic Character : The Bill Hooked, But Not Furnished With A Sere; Nostrils Oblong, Covered With Bristly Feathers; Head, Eyes, And Ears Particularly Large ; Tongue Bifid ; Claws Hooked And Sharp. Birds Of This Genus ...

Structure Of The Arteries
Structure Of The Arteries. Those Vessels,through Which The Blood Flows From The Heart Into Every Part Of The Body, Are Called Arteries. The Term, Which Is Derived From Anp, Air, And 7.,;peo); I Hold, Was First Adopted By The Anato Mists Of The Alexandrian School, In Con Sequence Of The ...

Struthio
Struthio, The Ostrich, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Gal Ling. Generic Character : The Bill Straight, Depressed Like That Of A Duck, And Rounded At The End ; Wings Short, And Unfit For Flight ; Legs Naked Above The Knee ; Two Toes Placed ...

Stznograpiii Shorthand
Shorthand, Stznograpiii. When Mankind Had Acquired A Tolerable Degree Of Expertness And Exactness In The Use Of Letters By The Ordinary Modes Of Writing, It Became The Study Of The Curious To Invent More Concise Methods Of Denot Ing The Same Words Or Phrases. Hence Sundry Schemes Of Abbreviation For ...

Subtraction
Subtraction. Subtraction Is The Operation By Which We Take A Lesser Number From A Greater, And Find Their Difference. It Is Exactly Opposite To Addition, And Is Performed By Learners In A Like Manner, Beginning At The Greater, And Reckoning Downwards The Units Of The Lesser. The Greater Is Call ...

Succinic
Succinic Acid, In Chemistry, Obtained From The Decomposition Of Amber, Was For Merly Called Volatile Salt Of Amber, And Regarded As An Alkaline Salt. It Was Not Tilt Towards The End Of The Seventeenth Century, That Its Acid Properties Were Dis Covered. See Amiga. The Name Of The Acid Is ...

Suction
Suction, The Act Of Sucking Or Draw Ing Up A Fluid, As Air, Water, Milk, Or The Like, By Means Of The Mouth And Lungs. There Are Many Effects Vulgarly Attribut Ed To Suction, Which, In Reality, Have Very Different Causes. As When Any One Sucks Water, Or Any Other ...

Sugar
Sugar Exists In Every Part Of Plants. It Is Found In The Roots, As Those Of The Carrot And Beet Root ; In The Stems, As In The Birch, The Maple, Some Palms, And Especially The Sugar Cane ; In The Leaves, As Those Of The Ash ; In The ...

Sulphur
Sulphur, An Inflammable Fossil, Of Which There Are Two Species, Viz. Com Mon Natural Sulphur, And Volcanic Natural Sulphur. The Colour Of The Natural Sul Phur Is Yellow, Of Different Degrees Of Intensity; It Occurs Massive, Disseminated, And Crystallized. The Crystals Are Mid Dle Sized And Small, Of Which The ...

Sulphuric
Sulphuric Acid, In Chemistry. The Name Of Sulphuric Acid Is Given To The Combination Of Sulphur And Of Oxygen, With The Greatest Proportion Of The Latter. It Was Formerly Called Vitriolic Acid, Be Cause It Was Obtained From Vitriol By Dis Tillation, Which Is A Compound Of Sulphu Ric Acid ...

Sulphurous
Sulphurous Acid, Was Formerly Call Ed Spirit Of Sulphur, And Volatile Sulphur Ous Acid. It Was Not Till The Yea; 1774 That Its Nature And Composition Dis Covered By The Labours Of Priestley And Lavoisier. Berthollet Afterwards Inves Tigated The Formation, Decomposition, Combinations, And Uses, Of This Acid. Fourcroy And ...

Summer
Summer, In Architecture, Is A Large Stone, The First That Is Laid Over Columns And Pilasters, In Beginning To Make A Cross Vault. &noise, In Carpentry, Is A Large Piece Of Timber, Which, Being Supported On Two Stone Piers, Or Posts, Serves As A Lintel To A Door, Window, &c. ...

Surd
Surd, In Arithmetic And Algebra, De Notes Any Number Or Quantity That Is In Commensurable To Unity ; Otherwise Call Ed An Irrational Number Or Quantity. The Square Roots Of All Numbers, Except 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, &c. (which Are The Squares ...

Sure
Sure. The Standard Of Weights Was Originally Taken From Grains Or Corns Of Wheat, Whence Our Lowest Denomination Of Weights Is Still Called A Grain ; Thirty-two Of Which Are Directed, By The Statute Call Ed " Compositio Mensurarum," To Com Pose A Penny-weight, Twenty Of Which Make An Ounce, ...

Surgery
Surgery Is That Division Of The Heal. Ing Art, Which Is Chiefly Conversant With The Treatment Of The External And Local Disorders Of The Body, Of The Effects Of Accidental Injury, And Of Such Diseases In General As Are Curable By Manual Opera Tion. Yet Its Field Is Not Entirely ...

Surgery
Surgery - Likely To Allay The Constitutional Irritation. He Must Then Wait Until The Operations Of Nature Have Separated The Sloughs Caus Ed By The Urine, Endeavouring, However, To Introduce An Elastic Catheter, Where He Should Allow It To Remain. Poultices, Fomentations, And The Warm Bath, Should Be Resorted To, ...

Surveying
Surveying. This Important Art, However Difficult Its Attainment May Ap Pear, Is Nevertheless To Be Comprised Within A Very Few General Rules. The Ac Curacy Of The Work Must Depend Entirely On The Correctness Of The Instruments Em Ployed, The Steadiness Of The Hand And Eye Of The Operator, And ...

Swedenborgians
Swedenborgians, A Religious So Ciety, Who Have Been So Called From Emanuel Swedenborg, In Whose Theologi Cal Works Are Taught The Doctrines Which They Receive. He Was Born At Stockholm In Sweden, Jan. 29, A. D. 1689 ; And Died In London, The 29th March, A. I). 1772. His Father ...

Swedish Weights
Swedish Weights, Used By Bergman And Scheele. - The Swedish Pound, Which Is Divided Like The English Apothecary, Or Troy Pound, Weighs 6556 Grains Troy. The Kanne Of Pure Water, According To Bergman, Weighs 42250 Swedish Grains, And Occupies 100 Swedish Cubical Inches. Hence The Kanne Of Pure Water Weighs ...

Swietenia
Swietenia, In Botany,. Lnahogany Tree, So Named, In Honour Of The Illustri Ous Gerard, L. B. A Swieten, Archiater To Maria Teresa, Empress Of Germany, A Genus Of The Decandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Trihilatee. Jussieu. Essential Character : Ca Lyx Five-cleft ; Petals Five, Nectary Cylin ...

Swimming
Swimming, The Art, Or Act, Or Sus Taimng The Body In Water, And Of Moving Therein ; In Which Action The Air-bladder And Fins Of Fishes Bear, A Considerable Part. Some Have Supposed; That The Motion Of Fish In The Water Depends Principally Up On' The Pectoral Fins, But The ...

Syllogism
Syllogism, In Logic, An Argument Or Term Of Reasoning, Consisting Of Three Pro Positions ; The Two First Of Which Are Called Premises, And The Last The Conclusion. Syl Logisms Are Nothing But The Expressions Of Our Reasonings, Reduced To Form And Me Thod : And Hence, As Every Act ...

Sylvan
Sylvan, In Mineralogy, A Genus Which Is Divided Into Four Species ; 1. "the Native Sylvan," Of Which The Colour Is Intermediate Between Tin White And Silver White : It Occurs Massive And Dis Seminated, And Also In Various Kinds Of Crystals : Internally It Is Shining, And Its Lustre ...

Syngnatiivs
Syngnatiivs, The A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Cartilaginei. Ge Neric Character : Snout Nearly Cylindrical; Mouth Terminal, Without Teeth Or Tongue, And Furnished With A Lid ; Body Lengthen Ed, Jointed, And Mailed With Many-sided Scales ; No Ventral Fins. These Fishes Fre Quent The Coasts Of The ...

Synovia
Synovia, The Name Given To A Liquid Secreted Within The Capsular Ligaments Of The Joints, To Facilitate Motion By Lubri Cating These Parts. The Synovia Of The Ox Is A Viscid, Semi-transparent Fluid, Of A Greenish White Colour, Which Soon Ac Quires The Consistence Of Jelly, And Not Long After ...

Syzygy
Syzygy, In Astronomy, A Term Equally Used For The Conjunction And Opposition Of A Planet With The Sun. On The Pheno Mena And Circumstances Of The Syzygies, A Great Part Of The Lunar Theory Depends. For, 1. It Is Shown In The Physical Astro Nomy, That The Fbrce Which Diminishes ...

Tabli Op Minor Vms
Tabli Op Minor Vms. C Has B, E, And A, All Flat. D Has B Flat. E Natural, Has G Sharp. F Natural Has A, E, A, And D, All Flat. G Natural, Has B And E, Flat. A Natural, Has Neither Sharp Nor Flat. B Flat, Has B, E, ...

Tack
Tack About, In -the Sea-language, Is To Turn The Ship About, Or Bring Her Head About, So As To Lie The Contrary Way. In Order To Explain The Theory Of Tacking A Ship, It May Be Necessary To Premise A Known Axiom In Natural Philosophy, "that Every Body Will Persevere ...

Tactics
Tactics, In Their General Acceptation, Relate Those Evolutions, Manoeuvres, And Positions, Which Constitute The Main Spring Of Military And Naval Finesse : They Are The Means Whereby Discipline Is Made To Support The Operations Of A Campaign, And Are, In Every Regular Service, Studied For The Purpose Of Training All ...

Talc
Talc, In Mineralogy, Is Divided Into Three Sub-species, Viz. 1.the Earthy Talc, Which Is Of A Greenish White Colour, Com Pesecl Of Glimmering Pearly, Small Scaly Parts: It Soils A Little, And Feels Rather Greasy. It Occurs In The Tin Mines Near Freyburg, In Saxony. 2. Common Vene Tian Talc ...

Talpa
Talpa, The Mole, In Natural History, A Of Mammalia, Of The Order Fens. Generic Character : Six Fore-teeth In The Upper Jaw, Unequal, Eight In The Lower ; Tusks Solitary, In The Upper Jaw Larger ; Seven Grinders In The Upper, And Six In The Lower. There Are Four Species. ...

Tamarindus
Tamarindus, In Botany, Tamarind Tree, A Genus Of The Monadelphia Triandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Lomentace•. Legurninosm, Jussieu. Es Sential Character : Calyx Fbur- Parted ; Pe Tals Three ; Nectary Of Two Short Bristles Under The Filaments ; Legume Pulpy. There Is Only One Species, Viz. T. ...

Tangent
Tangent, In Geometry, Is Defined, In General, To Be A Right Line, Which Touches Any Arch Of A Curve, In Such A Manner, That No Right Line Can Be Drawn Between The Right Line And The Arch, Or Within The Angle That Is Formed By Them. The Tan Gent Of ...

Tanning
Tanning, The Art Of Manufacturing Leather From Raw Hides And Skins. Before We Detail The Process, It May Be Proper To Observe, That Raw Hides And Skins Being Composed Of Minute Fibres Intersecting Each Other In Every Direction, The General Operation Of Tanning Consists Chiefly In Ex Panding The Pores, ...