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Toluifera
Toluifera, In Botany, Balsam Of Mtn Tree, A Genus Of The Decandria Mo Nogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Terebintacem, Jussieu. Essential Charac Ter : Calyx Five-toothed, Bell-shaped ; Pe Tals Five, The Lowest Twice As Big, Obcor Date : Style None. There Is But One Spe Cies, Viz. ...

Tongue
Tongue. Most Of The Herbivorous Mammalia, Par Ticularly Among The Bisulca, Have Their Tongue Covered With A Firm And Thick Cuti Cular Coat, Which Forms Numberless Point Ed Papillae, Directed Backwards. These Must Assist, According To Their Consistence And Direction, At Least In The Animals Of This Country, In Tearing ...

Tontine
Tontine, A Variable Kind Of Life An"- . Nuity, But Generally So Contrived As To Progressively Increasing In Amount. I S Formed By Nominating A Certain Num Of Lives Within Limited Ages, Who, Each One Hundred Pounds, Or Any Other Gross Sum Paid Are To Receive At First A Specific ...

Topography
Topography. This Term Is Applied To All Those Writings Which Have For Their Subjects The Description Of Tracts Of Coun Try, And The Buildings On Their Surfaces. We Often Meet With Passages In The Works Of Ancient Authors Which Are Topo Graphical, Or In Other Words, Descriptive Of Particular Places ...

Tornado
Tornado, A Sudden And Vehement Gust Of Wind From All Points Of The Com Pass, Frequent On The Coast Of Guinea. A Tornado Seems To Partake Much Of The Nature Of A Whirlwind, Or Perhaps Of A Water-spout, But Is More Violent In Its Effects. It Commences Very Suddenly, Several ...

Torricelli Evangelists
Torricelli (evangelists,) In Bio Graphy, An Illustrious Mathematician And Philosopher Of Italy, Was Born In 1608, And Trained Up In The Knowledge Of Clas Sical Literature. The Bent Of His Mind, However, Led Him To The Pursuits Of Natu Ral Philosophy, Which He Studied Under Father Benedict Castelli, Who Had ...

Trade
Trade, The Practice Of Exchanging Goods, Wares, Money, Bills, And Other.ar Tides Of Value, With The View Of Advan Tage Or Profit. It Is Generally Distinguish Ed Into Foreign Trade, Or The Export And Import Of Commodities To And From Other Countries, And The Internal Or Home Trade, Or That ...

Tragedy
Tragedy, A Drama Which Represents Some Grand And Serious Action, And Which Has Frequently A Fatal Issue Or End. Its Genuine Object Is To Purify And Mode Rate The Passions, By Exhibiting Them In Their Excess, And To Hold Forth Such A Picture Of The Crimes And Miseries Of Mankind ...

Transactions
Transactions, Philosophical, A Kind Of Journal Of The Principal Things That Come Before The Royal Society Of Lon Don. See Society. It Appears, That The Printing Of These Transactions Was Always, Front Time To Time, The Single Act Of The Re Spective Secretaries Of The Society, Till The Publication Of ...

Transformation
Transformation Of Equations. The Doctrine 'of The Transformation Of .equa Tions, And Of Exterminating Their Inter Mediate Terms, Isthustaught By Mr. Mac Laurin. The Affirmative Roots Of An .equa Tion Are Changed Into Negative, Roots Of The Same Value, And. The Negative Roots Into Affirmative, By Only Changing The Signs ...

Trap
Trap, In Mineralogy, Is A Swedish Term Signifying Stair. It Was First Applied To Designate A Certain Class Of Mountains, • Composed Of Nearly Horizontal Strata, With Perpendicular Breaks, Which Were Supposed To Give A Rude Resemblance To A Flight Of Stairs. Hence Many Species Of Rock, Differing Very Much ...

Treason
Treason. The Heir-apparent To The Crown Is Usu Ally Made Prince Of Wales And Earl Of Chester, By Special Creation And Investi Ture But Being The King's Eldest Son, Lie Is, By Inheritance, Duke Of Cornwall, With Out Any New Creation. The Observations In Coke's Reports, However, As Well As ...

Treasurer
Treasurer, An Officer To Whom The Treasure Of A Prince Or Corporation Is Committed To Be Kept, And Duly Disposed Of. The Lord High Treasurer Of Great Britain, Or First Commissioner Of The Trea Sury, When In Commission, Has Under His Charge And Government All The King's Revenue, Which Is ...

Trespass
Trespass, Is Any Transgression Of The Law, Under Treason, Felony, Or Misprision Of Either. Trespass Signifies Going Beyond What Is Lawful; Hence It Follows, That Every Injurious Act Is, In The Large Sense Of This Word, A Trespass. But As Many Injurious Acts Are Distinguished By Particular Names, As Treason, ...

Triangle
Triangle, In Geometry, A Figure Of Three Sides And Three Angles. 'triangles Are Either Plane Or Spherical. A Plane Triangle Is Contained Under Three Right Lines ; And A Spherical One Is A Triangle Contained Under Three Arches Of Great Cir Cles Of The Sphere. Triangles Are Denomi Nated, Their ...

Trifolium
Trifolium, In Botany, Trefoil, A Ge Nus Of The Diadelphia Decandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Papllionacem Or Leguminosx. Essential Character : Flow Ers In A Head.; Legume Scarcely Longer Than The Calyx ; Nectary Opening, There Are Fifty-one Species. T. Of Ficinale Or Inelilot, Has Naked Racemeus Pods, ...

Trigon 0
Trigon 0 M Spherical, Relates To Tri Angles, Or Figures Which Are Reducible To Triangles, Whose Sides Are Segments Of Circles. Thus If We Describe A Triangle On Any Spherical Body, Say A Globe, It Is Evident That All The Sides Must Be Com Posed Of Curved Lines ; And ...

Trigonia
Trigonia, In Botany, A Genus Of The Diadelphia Decandria Class And Order: Natural Order Of Malpighiw, Jussieu. Es Sential Character : Five-parted ; Pe Tals Five, Unequal, Uppermost Fhveolate At The Base Within ; Nectary, Two Scales At The Base Of The Germ ; Filaments, Some Barren ; Capsule Leguminose, ...

Tringa
Tringa, The Saud-piper, In Natural History, A - Genus • Of Birds Of The Order Grall2e. Generic Character: Bill Round, Straight, Slender, And About The Length Of The Head ; Nostrils Small And Linear : Tongde Slender ; Toes Very Slightly, If At All, Connected At The Base By A ...

Trochilus
Trochilus, The Humming Bird, In Na Tural History, A Germs Of Birds Of The Or Der Picx. Generic Character : Bill Slen Def And Weak ; Nostrils'ininute ; Tongue Long,. Constituted Of Two United Cylindric Tubes, And Missile; Tail Of Ten Feathers ; Legs Weak. The Bills Of Some Ate ...

Tron Foundery
Tron-foundery, The Art Of Casting 1 Iron, And Forming Moulds, Into Which It Is Poured When In A Fluid State. The Moulds Are Commonly Made In Sand, Held In Wooden Frames, (fig. 3 And 4, Plate Iron-foundery.) Two Of These Frames, A B, (fig. 4.) Are Called A Pair Of ...

Troy Weight
Troy Weight. Lb. Oz. Dt. Gr. Lb. Oz. Dt. Gr. Bought 52 .. 1 .. 7 .. 2 7 .. 2 .. 2 .. 7 Sold 39 .. 0 ..15 .. 7 5 .. 7 .. 1 .. 5 Unsold The Reason For Borrowing Is The Same As In Simple ...

Truss
Truss, A Bundle, Or Certain Quantity Of Hay, Straw, :1/4c. A Truss Of Hay Is To Contain Fifty-six Pounds, Or Half An Hun Dred Weight Thirty-six Trusses Make A Load. In June And August The Truss Is To Weigh Shay Pounds, On Forfeiture Of Eighteen Shillings Per Truss. Tauss, In ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, In Mineralogy, Is Usually Of A Yellowish And Greyish White : It Oc Cilia Massive, Disseminated, And Very Fre Quently Crystallized ; It Sometimes Occurs In Large, Coarse, And Small Granular Dis Tinct Concretioni, With Streaked And Shining Surfaces'. ,its Specific, Gravity Is From 4.3 To 6. It Is ...

Tungstic
Tungstic Acid. In The Year 1781; Scheele And Bergman, In Investigating The Nature Of Tungsten By The Swedes, Discovered That It Is Composed Of Lime Combined With A Peculiar Acid. Their Discovery Was Afterwards Confirmed By Several Chemists, Who Detected The Same Acid In The Mineral Called Wolfram. This Acid ...

Turdus
Turdus, The Thrush, In Natural Histo Ry, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pas Seres. Generic Character : Bill Straitish, Upper Mandible Somewhat Bending, And Notched Near The Point ; Nostrils Oval, And Half-covered With A Small Membrane, Or Naked ; Mouth Ciliated With A Few Bristles At The ...

Turning
Turning, In Mechanics, A Very In Genious And Useful Art, By Which A Great Variety Of Articles Are Manufactured, By Cutting Or Fashioning Them While They Re Volve Upon An Axis Or Line, Which In Most Cases Remains Immoveable. Every Solid Substance In Nature, May Be Submitted To This 'process, ...

Turpentine
Turpentine. See Resins. Turpentine, Of Which There Are Various Kinds, Are All Products Of Some Of The Species Of The Pinus. From This Genus Are Obtained Not Only Turpentine, But Resin, Pitch, Tar, &c. Which Are Employed So Ex Tensively In Ship-building, And In The Rig Ging Also : Likewise ...

Twilight
Twilight, That Light, Whether In The Morning Before Sun-rise, Or In The Even. Ing After Sun-set, Supposed To Begin And End When The Least Stars That Can Be Seen By The Naked Eye Cease, Or Begin To Ap Pear. By Means Of The Atmosphere It Happens, That Though None Of ...

Unitarians
Unitarians, In Church History, Are Those Who Believe That There Is But One God, The Supreme Object Of Religious Worship ; And That This God Is The Father Only, And Not A Trinity Consisting Of Fa The•, Son, And Holy Ghost. The Unitarians Having Been Frequently Confounded With The Old ...

Univalve Shells
Univalve Shells. Patella. A Conical Univalve Shell, With Out A Spire. Linneus Had Divided These Shells Into Five Sections; The Labiated, The Dentated, The Mucronated, The En Tire, And The Perforated. Lamarck Has Divided This Genus Into Five : 1. Patella, A Shell Of A Shield Or Bonnet Form, With ...

Universalism
Universalism, In Church History, Were Originally Those Reformers Who Taught A Kind Of Middle Doctrine, Be Tween The Systems Of Calvin And Armi Nius. They Were Denominated Hypothe Tical Universalists, Because They Main Tained, That God Is Willing To Shew Mercy To All Mankind ; And Because They Held, That ...

University
University. This Term Signifies The Establishment Of Many Colleges In One Particular Situation, All Of Which Are Subject To The Same General Government, And Which Are Formed By The Residence Of Numerous Professors In Every Branch Of Science, Who Teach Them To Students As Sembled From All Parts Of Europe, ...

Upupa
Upupa, The Hoopoe, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pica:. Ge Neric Character : Bill Long, Slender, And Bending ; Nostrils In The Base Of The Bill ; Tongue Obtuse, Entire, And Triangular ; Middle Toe Of The Three Toes Before Con Nected In Some Degree ...

Uranium
Uranium, In Chemistry, A Metal Dis Covered By Klaproth In The Year 1789. It Was Then Announced As A Metal More Dif Ficult To Be Reduced Than Manganese, Ex Ternally Of A Grey Colour, And Internally Of A Clear Brown, Of Considerable Lustre, And Middling Hardness, That It Might Be ...

Urea
Urea, In Chemistry. The Nature And Properties Of Urea Have Been Chiefly Investigated By Fourcroy Arid Vauquelin. It Is Obtained From Urine. It May Be Ex Tracted By The Following Process : If A Quantity Of Human Urine, Which Has Been Passed A Few Hours After Taking Food, Be Evaporated ...

Uric
Uric Acid This Acid Was Discovered By Scheele In The Year 1776. It Was At First Called Lithic Acid. It Constitutes One Of The Component Parts Of Urinary Calculi, And Is Also Found In Human Urine. There Is One Species Of Calculus Which Is Almost Entirely Composed Of This Substance ...

Urinary Organs
Urinary Organs. The Structure Of The Kidney In The Mammalia Displays Two Very Opposite Varieties, Which May Be Called The Simple And The Conglomerated Kidneys. In The Former There Is A Single Papilla, Which Is Surrounded By An Exterior Crust Of Cortical Substance. This Is The Case In All The ...

Urine
Urine. The Properties Of Urine Vary Considerably, According To The Constitu Tion And Health Of The Body, And The Pe Riod When It Is Voided After Taking Food. The Urine Of A Healthy Person Is Of A Light Orange Colour, And Unifitrmly Transparent. It Has A Slightly Aromatic Odour, In ...

Ursus
Ursus, The Bear, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Fem. Generic Character; Six Front Teeth Both Above And Below, The Two Lateral Ones Of The Lower Jaw Lobed, And Longer Than The Others, With Smaller Or Secondary Teeth At The Internal Bases ; Tusks Solitary ; ...

Usance
Usance, In Commerce, Is A Determi Nate Time Fixed For The Payment Of Bills • Of Exchange, Reckoned Either From The Day Of The Bills Being Accepted, Or From The Day Of Their Date ; And Thus Called, Because Regulated By The Usage And Cus- 4 Tom Of The Places ...

Usury
Usury, In A Strict Sense, Is A Contract Upon The Loan Of Money, To Give The Lend Er A Certain Profit For The Use Of It, Upon All Events, Whether The Borrower Made Any Advantage Of It, Or The Lender Suffer Ed Any Prejudice For The Want Of It, Or ...

Utility Of Anatomy
Utility Of Anatomy. Astronomy And Anatomy, As Fontenelle Observes, Are The Studies Which Present Us With The Most Striking View Of The Two Greatest Attribute,s Of The Supreme Being. The First Of These Fills The Mind With The Idea Of His Immensity, In The Largeness, Distances, And Number Of The ...

Vacuum
Vacuum, In Philosophy, Denotes A Space Empty, Or Devoid, Of All Matter Or Body. It Has Been The Opinion Of Some Philosophers, Particularly The Cartesians, That Nature Admits Not A Vacuum, But That The Universe Is Entirely-f & Of Matter : In Consequence Of Which Opinion They Were Obliged To ...

Vagrants
Vagrants Are All Persons Threaten Ing To Run Away, And Leave Their Wives And Children To The Parish. All Persons Unlaw Fully Returning To The Parish Or Place Whence They Have Been Legally Removed By Order Of Two Justices, Without Bring Ing A Certificate From The Parish Or Place Whereto ...

Vapour
Vapour, In Meteorology, A Thin Hu Mid Matter, Which, Being Rarefied To A .certain Degree By The Action Of Heat, Ascends To A Particular Height In The At Mosphere, Where It Is Suspended, Until It Returns In The Form Of Dew, Rain, Snow, &c. On This Subject We Refer Our ...

Variations In The Form
Variations In The Form And Size Os' Certain Parts Of The Body. The Ears Are Movable, And Stand At Some Distande Froth The Head In Many Sa-• Vages, Where They Have Not Been Confin &i By Dress. The Lobulus Is Increased And Elongated Considerably By Artificial Means In Some Of ...

Varieties Of The Hunan
Varieties Of The Hunan Race. The Colour Of The Skin Forms A Very Con Stant Hereditary Character, Most Clearly Influenced By That Of Both Parents In The Hybrid Offspring Of Different Varieties, Having A Close And Nearly Uniform Relation To That Of The Hair And Iris, And Indeed To The ...

Varignon
Varignon (prrsa,) In Biography, Was Born At Caen In 1654. He Was The Son Of An Architect, And Intended At An Early Age For The Church. Accident Threw Into His Way A Copy Of Euclid's Elements, Which Gave Him A Strong Bias Towards Mathematical Learning. So Intent Was He In ...

Varnish
Varnish. Lac Varnishes, Or Lacquers, Consist Of Different Resins In A State Of So Lution, Of Which The Most Common Are, Mastich, Sandarach, Lac, Benzoin, Copal, Amber, And Asphaltum. The Menstrua Are Either Expressed Or Essential Oils, As Also Alcohol. For A Lac Varnish Of The First Kind, The Common ...

Vegetable
Vegetable. See Botany, Plant, &c. A Vegetable Is Composed Of A Root, Stem, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, And Seeds ; And When All These Different Parts Are Ful Ly Developed, The Vegetable Is Said To Be Perfect. When Any Are Deficient, Or At Least Less Obvious, The Vegetable Is Said To ...

Vegetable_2
Vegetable Acids, In Chemistry. The Acids Which Exist In Many Vegetables Are At Once Recognized By Their Taste. These Acids Were Formerly Denominated Essen. Tial Salts Of Vegetables, And It Was Sup Posed, That All Essential Salts Were The Same, And Were Composed Of Tartar, Or Vinegar. But Scheele 's ...

Vegetables
Vegetables) ; Those Who Duly Advert To It Will, We Conceive, Incline To The Opi Nion, That Plants Are Not Altogether Desti Tute Of Perception. But On A Question That Has Perplexed And Di'vided The Most Ingenious And Inquisitive Naturalists, It Is Very Difficult To Decide. If We Extend To ...

Velocity
Velocity Of Bodies Moving. In Carves. According To Galileo's System Of The Fall Of Heavy Bodies, Which Is Now Universally Admitted Among Philosophers, The Veloci Ties Of A _body Falling Vertically Are, At Each Moment Of Its Fall, As The Roots Of The Heights From Whence It Has Callen; Reckoning ...

Velvet
Velvet, A Rich Kind Of Stuff, All Silk, Covered On The Outside With A Close, Short, Fine, Soft Shag, The Other Side Being A Very Strong Close Tissue. The Nap, Or Shag, Called Also The Velveting, Of This Stuff, Is Formed Part Of The Threads Of The Warp, Which The ...

Ventriloquism
Ventriloquism, An Art Of Speak Ing, By Means Of Which The Human Voice And Other Sounds Are Rendered Audible, As . If They Proceeded From Various Different Places; Though The Titterer Does Not Change His Place, And In Many Instances Does Not Appear To Speak. It Has Been Supposed To ...

Venus
Venus, The Most Beautiful Star In The Heavens, Known By The Names Of The Morning And Evening Star, Likewise Keeps Near The Sun, Though She Recedes From Him Almost Double The Distance Of Mer Cury. She Is Never Seen In The Eastern Quarter Of The Heavens When The Sun Is ...

Vermes
Vermes, In Natural History, The Last Class Of The Animal Kingdom, According To The Limnean System. The Animals In This Class Are Not Merely Those Commonly Known By The Name Of Worms, But Like Wise Those Which Have The General Cha Racter Of Being" Slow In Motion, Of A Soft ...

Vernier
Vernier, A Scale Adapted For The Gra Duation Of Mathematical Instruments, So Called From Pierre Vernier The Inventor. Under The Article Barometer Will Be Seen Some Account Of This Scale As Applied To That Instrument; Here We Shall Take It Up More Generally. This Scale Is Derived From The Following ...

Versions
Versions. Annuities Are Frequently Granted By Parishes, Trusts, And Public Societies, For The Purpose Of Raising Money For The Erec Tion Or Repair Of Churches, Chapels, Work Houses, Bridges, Or Other Expensive Build. Ings, It Being Often Found Practicable To Obtain Money In This Way, When It Could Not Be ...

Vinegar
Vinegar Is A Liquor Of An Agreeable Smell, A Pleasant And Strongly Acid Taste, And Of A Hue Varying From Light-red To Brown-straw Colour; And Is Prepared By Fermenting Any Substance Or Compound Which Has Already Undergone The Spiritu Ous Fermentation. Vinegar, Therefore, May Be Made Immediately From Any Wine, ...

Visible
Visible, Something That Is An Object Of Sight Or Or Something Whereby The Eye Is Affected, So As To Produce A Sensation. The Cartesians Say That Light Alone Is The Proper Object Of Vision. But Accord Ing To Newton, Colour Alone Is The Proper Object Of Sight ; Colour Being ...

Vision
Vision, Is The Act Of Seeing Or Of Per Ceiving External Objects By The Organ Of Sight. As Every Point Of An Object, A B C, (plate Xvi. Miscel. Fig. 11.), Sends Out Rays In All Directions, Some Rays From Every Point On The Side Next The Eye, Will Fall ...

Vista
Vista (el:axel S,) In Biography, A Very Celebrated French Mathematician, Was Born In 1540, At Fontenai, A Province Of France. Among Other Branches Of Learning In Which He Excelled, He Was One Of The Most Respectable Mathematicians Of The Sixteenth Century, Or Indeed Of Any Age. His Writings Abound With ...

Vitis
Vitis, In Botany, The Vine, A Genus Of The Pentandria Monogynia Class And Or Der. Natural Order Of Flederacex. Viti Ces, Jussieu. Essential Character : Petals Cohering At The Top, Shrivelling ; Berry Five-seeded, Superior. There Are Twelve Species, And Many Varieties. The Most Important Species Of The Vi Tis ...

Vitmannia
Vitmannia, In Botany, So Named In Honour Of Abbe F. Vitmann, Professor At Milan, A Genus Of The Octandria Motion'. Nia Class And Order. Essential Character : Calyx Four-cleft; Corolla Four-petalled ; • Nectary A Scale At The Base Of Each Fila Ment; Nut Semi-lunar, Compressed, One Seeded. There Is ...

Vitruvius
Vitruvius (maitcus Yrrituvius Potuo,) In Biography, A Celebrated Ito Man Architect, Of Whom However Nothing Is Known, But What Is To Be Collected From His Ten Books " De Architecture," Still Extant. In The Preface To The Sixth Book, He Writes, That He Was Carefully In Structed In The Whole ...

Viverra
Viverra, The Weasel, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Fero. Generic Character : Six Fore-teeth, Rather Sharp ; Tusks Longer : Tongue In Some Smooth, In Others Aculeated Back Wards ; Body Ofa Lengthened Form. Gme Lin Separates The Viverra From The Mustela Genus, And ...

Viviani
Viviani (vinesnrio,) A Celebmted Italian Mathematician, Was Born At Flo Rence, In 1621, Some Say-1622. He Was A Disciple Of The Illustrious Galileo, And Lived With Him From The 17th To The 20th Year Of His Age. After The Death Of His Great Master, He Passed Two Or Three Years ...