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Approved

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APPROVED approved society is one, e.g. a Friendly Society or a Trade Union, whose constitution complies with the requirements of the National Insurance Act, 1911, and is accepted by the Insurance Com missioners, and whose members pay for and receive their benefits under the Act through and under the administration of the society. In order to obtain the status of rn approved society certain conditions must be fulfilled. The society must—(1) possess absolute self-governmolt ; (2) not work for a profit ; (3) elect its committees and renresentatives by the members in accordance with the statutory conditions : (4) possess a minimum number of 10,000 members (5,000 for Ireland) who are persons insured under the Act ; (5) provide for both local and central control of medical attendance and sick benefit, and for appeal to arbitration on questions arising under the Ac', ; (6) give security ; (7) keep separate accounts for the State scheme! (8) comply generally with the requirements of the Act.

A society, on becoming an approved society, is not required to apply any of its existing funds for the purposes of the State scheme, and does not sacrifice its independence in the selection of new members. The consequent Government inspection, audit, and periodical valuation aims at a streng thening of its position in the interest of all its members. Societies having a smaller membership than the above-mentioned minimum may associate them selves with other societies similarly situated with a view to forming an association, with a central body, qualified for acceptance as an approved society. Such associptioc is not intended to diminish the independence of the constituent societies, but should, on the contrary, strengthen it. Super annuation Funds established by employers may, without regard to the requisite minimum of membership, become approved societies.

About 4,500,000 people belong to societies which now have the opportunity to become approved societies. As this is but a small part of the great number outside it is obvious, in view of the special advantages that an insured person derives through membership of an approved society, that these friendly societies will obtain, as a consequence of the Act, a considerable and increasing adhesion of membership. An approved society may continue to select membership from the point of view of health, but it will no longer be entitled to make a condition as to age. This cannot injure it, as under the Act there will be an adequate compensatory credit. Societies gain by accession to the ranks of approved societies mainly by the fresh reserves with which they will be credited under the Act.. Members gain inasmuch as their wage-deducted contributions to the Act are credited to the society, the latter paying the members their benefit under the Act, leaving only a small balance necessary to be paid by the members in order to participate in the proportionately larger benefits of the society. And see INSURANCE

COMMITTEES and NATIONAL INSURANCE.

keeper of a victualling-house is entitled to be paid for the accommodation for any soldiers billeted upon him at the following rates per each person : Lodging and attendance where meals furnished, fed. per night ; breakfast, 4d. ; dinner, 11 ; supper, qd. ; where no meals furnished, lodging and attendance, and candles, vinegar, salt, and the use of fire, and the necessary utensils for dressing and eating his meat, 6d. per day ; stable room and 10 lbs. of oats, 12 lbs. of hay, and 8 lbs. of straw per day for each horse, ls. 9d. ; lodging and attendance for officer, 2s. per night. N.B. Au officer must pay for his food.

fares of cabs fitted with taximeters are now fixed, in London, by the Home Secretary. If horse cabs, the fare fixed must not be less than at the rate of sixpence per mile so far as the fare is fixed on the basis of distance, and of sixpence per twelve minutes z.o far as the fare is fixed on the basis of time, and so that no fare is less than sixpence The privileged cab systeth has now been abolished in the metropolis by the London Cab and Stage, Carriage Act, 1907. Section 2 (1) of that Act runs : "In the admission of cabs to a railway station, or in the treatment of cabs while in a railway station, the company having control of the station shall not show any preference to any cab, or give any cab a privilege, which is given to other cabs ; and where any charge is made in respect of the admission of any cab to a railway station for the purpose of plying for hire therein, the charge made shall not exceed such sum as may be allowed by the Secretary of State." The operation of that section may be suspended by the Home Secretary, with conditions if necessary, in respect if a particular station if he is satisfied that otherwise it would be impossible to obtain a sufficient supply of cabs at the station for the proper accommodation of the public. Notwithstanding this abolition of the privileged system a company has power to make regulations or conditions for the purpose of maintaining order or dealing with the traffic, including regulations as to : (i.) the number of cabs to be admitted at any one ti,,,e ; (ii.) the rejection of cabs and drivers unfit for admission ; and (iii.) the expulsion of any cabman who has been guilty of misconduct, or of a breach of the company's bye laws or regulations.