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Bearer Securities

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BEARER SECURITIES are those dgcuments of title which pass from hand to hand by mere delivery, the formalities of assignment or indorsement not being required. Examples are a bill of exchange, or a debenture, expressed to be payable to bearer. • BEER—BEER-HOUSES—BEER-RETAILERS.--In early times in England ale and bread were considered to be equally victuals or absolute necessaries of life, and from the reign of Henry III. to that of Henry VIII. laws were made regulating the price and quality of these commodities, not relatively to some indifferent standards, but relatively to one another. But this interdependence was bound in time to become extremely inconvenient, and consequently, in the twenty-third year of the latter reign, brewers were allowed to fix the price of beer without regard to the price of bread, though subject to the discretion of justices and mayors, and to the palate of the ale-conner. • ale-conner held an office of the highest antiquity, his duty being to examine and assay beer and ale and take care that they were of good quality and wholesome, and sold at the prices fixed by the laws and regulations for the time being in force. These laws or regulations were called assizes. The ale-conner has persisted until the present day ; he is found still occupying a sinecure office in an occasional manor, or under some ancient corporation. But in the old days he was an official with important duties, and was to be found in almost every town and parish throughout the country.To-day, beer can apparently be made of any substance, chemical or otherwise, so long as it is not injurious to health. Most of the prosecu tions which have been taken in respect of adulterated beer have been the result of a too great proportion of salt in the beer. And these were almost the only prosecutions, until recently the discovery of arsenic in beer gave rise to another ground for proceeding. The special statute law on the subject now in force is as follows :—" A dealer in or retailer of beer shall not adulterate or dilute beer, or add any matter or thing thereto (except finings for the purpose of clarification), and any beer found to be adulterated or diluted or mixed with any other matter or thing (except finings) in the possession of a dealer in or retailer of beer shall be forfeited, and he shall incur sAne of X50." There is a similar enactment with regard to brewers. There is an implied warranty under the SALE OF GOODS Act, on the sale of beer by retail by description, that the beer is of a merchantable quality.

was in the reign of Henry VII. that restrictions were placed upon the sale of beer; until then any one who pleased might brew and sell ale and beer and keep an alehouse, the only restriction being the one he shared with his fellow-traders, that he should so conduct his business as not to create a public nuisance. But it would seem that such a business could not be so con ducted without becoming a public danger. Accordingly a statute of Edward

VI. placed the alehouses directly under the control of the local magistrates, and so inaugurated the licensing system which is with us to this day. And probably the jealousy which that system has been preserved is as much due to the presence through all these years of a watchful temperance party, as to a careful police. The temperance party, considered as an opposing force to the licensed trade, can hardly be said to be of modern growth. If there was not a party so-called there were certainly its elements, present too, in high places. Thus in the year 1635 we find the Lord Keeper Coventry, in his charge to the judges previously to the circuits, inveighing against the licensed houses in the strongest terms. He says : " I account alehouses and tippling houses the greatest pests in the kingdom. I give it to you in charge to take a course that none be permitted unless they be licensed ; and, for the licensed alehouses, let them be but a few, and in fit places ; if they be in private corners and ill places, they become the dens of thieves—they are the public stages of drunkenness and disorder ; in market-towns, or in great places or roads, where travellers come, they are necessary . . . let care be taken in the choice of alehouse keepers, that an alehouse be not appointed to be the liveli hood of a great family ; one or two is enough to draw drink and serve the people in an alehouse ; but if six, eight, ten, or twelve must be maintained by alehouse keeping, it cannot choose but be an exceeding disorder, and the family, by this means, is unfit for any other good work or employment. In many places they swarm by default of the justices of the peace, that set up too many ; but if the justices will not obey your charge herein, certify their default and names, and I assure you they shall be discharged. I once did discharge two justices for setting up one alehouse, and shall be glad to do the like again upon the same occasion." Until the reign of George II. little change was made in the method of licensing and the regulation of alehouses ; but in that reign, what with the startling and extraordinary increase of spirit-drinking amongst the lowest classes, and with the necessity which had arisen for arrangements by which the excise duties might be collected with facility and certainty, the legislature found it expedient to seriously approach this important subject. Accordingly, two Acts were passed, the latter of which continued as the authority for ing beerhouses antil the nineteenth century ; then after one or two Acts of slight importance there was passed in ins a general Act regulating the grant ing of licences and repealing all former statutes on the subject. This latter Act, as amended and supplemented by subsequent Acts, ending with the Licensing Act of 1910, is now the authority for licensing beerhouses. A beer retailer is not necessarily an innkeeper.

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