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Boiler

faith, bond, law and fide

BOILER EXPLOSION.—Notice hereof must, under a penalty, be given to the Board of Trade within twenty-four hours. A boiler requiring such a notice would include any closed vessel used for generating steam, or for heating water or other liquids, or into which steam is admitted for heating, steaming, boiling, or other similar purposes, as well as a pipe conveying steam from a boiler outside to an engine inside a coal-mine ; but boilers used exclusively for domestic purposes, or to heat non-residential business premises, or used in the King's service, are not boilers such as would require notice to be given in case of their explosion.

BONA FIDE.—This expression is as frequently used by the layman as by the lawyer, and by both it is used with very much the same meaning. The literal translation of the phrase is " in good faith," and it was originally used in Roman law in the opposite sense to mala fide, " in bad faith," or to do/us, " fraud." The expression frequently appears in Acts of Parliament, generally meaning that the acts referred to must not be done to evade the law. In the customary legal sense, as used in regard to contracts and other transactions not coming strictly under the denomination of contract, it is used according to its literal meaning, as opposed to, and implying the absence of all dishonesty, fraud, deceit, wilful misrepresentation, or suppression of the truth. Speaking broadly, it may be said to be a necessary element in all

contracts ; and in some, e.g. contracts of insurance or guarantee, not only must there be a bare good faith, but even the strictest good faith. A bond file traveller would be a man who is actually a " traveller," the law taking no cognisance of the object of the journey ; and it is the same when the expression is used in conjunction with such words as occupation, or parishioner, the addition of bond fide being mere surplusage. Bond fide mistakes, pur chases, and payments mean respectively : genuine mistakes of law or fact, not erroneous views thereof deliberately adopted after consideration ; genuine purchasers, who are not merely donees taking gifts, or others taking advan tages with paying value, or proportionate value therefor, under the form of purchases ; and genuine payments which are not made with the intention of being reclaimed, or with some secret arrangement as to their return or application to objects not apparent on the face of the actual transaction. For bond fide, in connection with BILLS OF EXCHANGE, me that title as well as HOLDER FOR VALUE. Reference may also be niade to DECEIT; FRAUD; MISREPRESENTATION; UBERRIMA FIDES.