CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST.—This term, and now also the term Pharmacist, are applied by statute to those persons (a) u ho, at any time before the 31st July 1868, carried on in Great Britain the business of a chemist and druggist, in the keeping of open shop for the compounding of the prescriptions of duly qualified medical practi tioners ; or (b) who before the same date were assistants in such a business, and have since been duly registered according to the provisions of the Pharmacy Acts ; or (c) who have been duly registered under the Acts, without regard to whether they were or were not in business or assistants before the above date. A woman may qualify as a chemist and druggist. In 1852 the legislature found it expedient for the safety of the public that persons exercising the business of chemists in Great Britain should possess a practical knowledge of pharmaceutical and general chemistry and other branches of useful knowledge. At that time there was in existence a society of chemists and druggists called " The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain," which had been incorporated by royal charter in 1843, the object of which society was the advancement of chemistry and pharmacy, and the promotion of a uniform system of educating those who desired to practise the business of chemists and druggists. To this society, then, did Parliament hand over the examination as to their skill and knowledge of all nrsons who might VI future desire to assume the title of, and engage in the business of, legally recognised chemists ; and to further this end, the society was empowered to keep a register of all persons it found to be sufficiently qualified, and additional powers were granted to it for regulating the qualifications of such persons. The first statute on the subject is the Pharmacy Act, 1852. This was followed by an amending and extending Act of 1868, by others of 1869 and 1898, and now by a final Act of 1908 There is nothing in any of these Acts to prevent any person, who so desires, from carrying on, without registration, the business of a chemist and druggist, even though he calls his shop " The Pharmacy" (Pharmaceutical Society v.
Mercer), and, as such, selling drugs not containing poison, so long as he does not describe or hold himself out as a pharmaceutical chemist, pharmaceutist, pharmacist, dispensing chemist and druggist, chemist or druggist, or a member of the Pharmaceutical Society ; and does not sell, or keep open shop to retail, dis pense, or compound poisons. Should he unlawfully assume either of these titles, or use, assume, or exhibit any name, title, cr sign in plying that he is a person registered by the Pharmaceutical Society, or that he is a member of that society, he will be liable to a penalty of five pounds ; so also if, being unregistered, he retails, dispenses, or compounds poisons. The Acts are chiefly concerned with regulating the constitution of the society and the keeping of the register. They also provide for the examination of persons who desire to become chemists, give power to the Pharmaceutical Society to make bye-laws, and require the society to register those who obtain certificates of proficiency after examination. The bye-laws regulating the examinations can always be obtained free of charge from its offices. The usual method of becoming a duly qualified chemist is for a lad to pass a public examination in general knowledge, and subsequently to be apprenticed to a chemist. During his apprenticeship, or after he has served a certain period of time, the society will examine him in his technical subjects, and if found proficient, award him a certificate, and place his name on the register. In January in every year the society must publish this register ; it is known as the Register of Pharmaceutical Chemists and Chemists and Druggists. An actually practising and registered chemist is exempt from serving on juries or inquests. A shop in which only medicines and surgical appliances are sold is not subject to the Shop Hours Act, 1904.