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Business Encyclopedia and Legal Adviser

Office
Office Organisation.—in The Organisation Of An Office For The Clerical Work Of A Factory, Or Any Large Business, Attention Should Be Given To The Following Points :—(1) The Office Building; (2) The Selection Of The Staff; And (3) The Creation Of Suitable Departments. We Will Take These Points Seriatim. (1) ...

Office Boys
Office Boys : Their Selection And Development.—the Ex Perience Of Large Business Houses Has Persuaded Them To Believe That The Merit System Of Promotion Works To The Best Advantage, When The Lowliest Worker Can Be Promoted Continually To The Top. This Has Incited A Large Demand For Office Boys And ...

Office Furniture And Accessories
Office Furniture And Accessories : The Selection Of.— It Is Only Within Comparatively Recent Years That Manufacturers Have Paid Attention To The Peculiar Needs Of The Business And Professional Community As Regards Office Appointments And Office Furniture. The Old-fashioned Desk At Which The Clerk Perched On His High Stool And ...

Official Assignees
Official Assignees Are Appointed Annually By The Committee Of The Stock Exchange To Collect And Administer The Estate Of A Defaulting Member On Much The Same Principle As A Trustee In Bankruptcy Collects And Administers The Estate Of A Bankrupt. In The Words Of The Rules Of The Stock Exchange, ...

Official List
Official List Is The Name Given To A List Of Prices Of English And Foreign Stocks, Shares, And Other Securities, Officially Recognised On The London Stock Exchange. It Is Published Daily, Under The Authority Of The Com. Mittee, And Is A Record Of The Prices At Which Business Has Been ...

Official Receivers
Official Receivers Occupy A Position Created By The Bankruptcy Act, 1883, Their Duties Having Relation Both To The Conduct Of Bankrupts And To The Administration Of Bankrupts' Estates. The Country Is Divided, For The Purposes Of Bankruptcy Administration, Into A Large Number Of " Districts" Co-extensive, As Far As Possible, ...

Official Secrets
Official Secrets Of State Must Not Be Disclosed Under Pain Of Severe Punishment ; Nor May An Unauthorised Person Attempt To Obtain Any Informa Tion About Them. The Official Secrets Act, 1911, Which Is Dealt With Fully In The Appendix, Vol. Ii., Under The Title Espionage, Makes It A Misdemeanour ...

Options
Options And Fiitures.—an Option Is A Mode Of Speculation In Stocks And Shares Very Frequently Met With On The London Stock Exchange, And Even More Frequently Perhaps On The Buis Bourse And The New York Exchange. And The Principle Of Operation By Option Is Not By Any Means Restricted To ...

Order And Disposition
Order And Disposition Doctrine Of Reputed Ownership Is Peculiarly A Part Of The Law Of Bankruptcy, And Was Introduced So Far Back As The Reign Of James I. Section 44 Of The Bankruptcy Act, 1883, Specifically Describes What Property Of A Bankrupt Is Available For Distribution Amongst His Creditors, And ...

Outdoor Advertising
Outdoor Advertising. Advertising Is A Wide Term Variously Interpreted. Dictionary Compilers Have, As A Class, Stumbled Hopelessly At It And Few, If Any, Have Explained Its Meaning In Clear And Comprehensive Language. For The Purpose Of This Memorandum, Advertising May Be Defined As The Art Of Making Known The Existence ...

Overdraft
Overdraft. An Overdraft Is Created When A Customer Of A Bank Has Drawn Cheques Upon His Account There For A Larger Amount Than The Balance To His Credit. Unless An Overdraft Has Been Arranged With The Bank, Such Proceedings Are Dangerous In The Extreme To The Person Who Draws The ...

Overtime
Overtime In Factories And Workshops Is Now Regulated By The Act Of 1901. In Places Where Preserves Are Made From Fruit, Or Fish Is Preserved Or Cured, Or Condensed Milk Is Made, There Are Certain Regulations As To The Overtime Employment Of Women. The Period Of Employment There For A ...

Packing Proprietary
Packing Proprietary Packing Of A Pro Prietary Article Is Often A Question Very Much Neglected By The Manufacturer, Yet The Form Which Goods Take When They Are Delivered To The Public Is Very Often A Great Factor In Determining Their Success. Most Manufacturers Pack Goods With Due Regard For Their ...

Packing For The Retail
Packing For The Retail Trade.—every Manufacturer And Wholesaler Pays Attention To The Packing Of His Goods, But It Is Question Able Whether The Retailer Has Given The Subject The Same Consideration. The Problem Of Packing Retail Goods Is Quite Different From The Problem Of Packing Goods For Delivery From The ...

Palmistry
Palmistry Is Classed By The Law With Certain Other Practices Such As Astrology, Spiritualism, Legerdemain, And So Forth, When Used As A Means For Telling Fortunes, Or For The Purposes Of Any Other Form Of Deception Or Imposition. A Palmist Who Intends To Deceive And Impose Is Legally A Rogue ...

Parcels
Parcels Post.—this Department Of Post Office Activity Was Intro Duced In The Year 1882. Its Introduction Has Proved Of The Utmost Benefit To Internal Commerce, As Also To Foreign Trade So Far As Parcel Post Agreements Have Been Entered Into With Other Countries. Inland.—parcels Intended To Be Sent By Post ...

Parent And
Parent And Child.—this Relationship Can Arise Only From A Lawful Marriage. Its Nature Is Higher Than That Of Guardian And Ward, For A Guardian, Merely As Such, Is Not Under Any Legal Obligation To Maintain His Ward. A Parent, On The Other Hand, Is Practically Bound To Maintain His Child, ...

Partnership
Partnership Is The Relation Which Subsists Between Persons Carry Ing On A Business In Common With A View To Profit. Such Is The Short Definition Contained In The Partnership Act,1890, An Act Which Amended And Very Largely Codified The Law Relating To Partnership, And Is The Chief Statutory Authority On ...

Partnership Accounts
Partnership Accounts Should Always Be Kept And Settled In Strict Accordance With The Financial Regulations Contained In The Contract Of Partnership, Or, In The Absence Of Such A Contract, With Those Imposed Generally By The Legislature In The Partnership Act. In Particular, A Strict Regard Should Be Had To The ...

Passage Broker
Passage Broker Is A Person Who, At Any Place In The British Islands, Sells Or Lets, Or Agrees To Sell Or Let, Ar Is Anywise Concerned In The Sale Or Letting Of Steerage Passages From Any Place In Europe Not Within The Mediterranean Sea. In Order To Lawfully Act As ...

Passengers In
Passengers In Ships.—the General Principles That Govern The Rights And Obligations Of Carriers Of Passengers By Sea Are Very Much The Same As Those Incidental To The Carriage Of Passengers By Land, The Most Important Modifications Being The Subject Of Special Statutory Provisions. As Instances Of These Modifications May Be ...

Patent Agent
Patent Agent Is A Term Defined By The Register Of Patent Agents Act, 1907, As Meaning "exclusively An Agent For Obtaining Patents In The United Kingdom." The Profession Of A Patent Agent Has Existed In This Country During The Last Eighty Years, But It Is Only Since The Patent Act ...

Penalties
Penalties Under The Factory Act. —for Not Ketping A Fitctory Or Workslwp In Conformity With The The Occupier Is Liable To A Fine Not Ex Ceeding X10, And, In The Case Of A Second Or Subsequent Conviction In Relation To A Factory Within Two Years From The Last Conviction For ...

Periodical
Periodical Accounts.—under This Heading A Short Resume Is Given Of The Method Of Dealing With. (1) Statements From Branches. (2) Statements For The Use Of Directors, Managers, Or Principals Of A Business, Containing Information As To (a) The Manufacture, (b) The Sale Of Goods, And (c) The Financial Position Of ...

Petition
Petition Is A Document Containing A Prayer From The Person Present Ing It—called " The Petitioner "—that The Court To Which It Is Presented Will Grant Sonic Right Or Redress Some Wrong. Many Legal Proceedings Are Commenced By The Presentation Of A Petition Instead Of By A Writ. Of Such ...

Petroleum
Petroleum, And Its Safe Keeping, Is The Subject Of The Petroleum Acts, 1871 And 1879, And The Petroleum (hawkers) Act, 1881, All Which Statutes Are Known Generally As The Petroleum Acts, 1871-1881. The Term " Petroleum" Includes Any Rock Oil, Rangoon Oil, Burinali Oil, Oil Made From Petroleum, Coal, Schist, ...

Physicians And
Physicians And Any Person, Without Any Legal Qualification, May Freely Practise Medicine And Surgery, But He Cannot Recover Any Fees For His Services, And Will Incur Heavy Penalties If He Describes Or Holds Himself Out As A Legal/y Qualified Medical Pmctitioner. In Order To Obtain A Legal Qualification The Practi ...

Pleasure Resorts
Pleasure Resorts : How To Develop Them.—of Recent Years A Great Business Has Sprung Up In Developing Popular Resorts. Indeed, The Interest Has Become Such A Large One That It Is Worth While Indicating The Machinery On Which These Organisations Are Run. In The Old Days, A Popular Seaside Resort ...

Poisons
Poisons Can Be Lawfully Sold Retail Only By Registered Chemists (g.r.), And In Certain Cases By Medical Practitioners Ana Veterinary Surgeons ; And, In The Case Of Poisonous Substances To Be Used Exclusively In Agriculture Or Horticulture For The Destruction Of Insects, Fungi, Or Bacteria, Or As Sheep-dips Or Weed-killers ...

Police
Police (property In Possession Of).—property Found On Prisoners, Or The Owner Of Which Is For The Time Being Unknown, Very Frequently Comes Into The Possession Of The Police In Connection With A Criminal Charge. Generally Under Such Circumstances The Local Magistrates Have Power, On The Application Of The Police Or ...

Policy Of Insurance Against
Policy Of Insurance Against Accident And Policy Of Insurance For Any Payment Agreed To Be Made During The Sickness Of Any Person, Or His In Capacity From Personal Injury, Or By Way Ciindemnity Against Loss Or Damage Of Or To Any Property .001 For The Purposes Of The Stamp Act ...

Poor Law
Poor Law Appointments.—the Positions Available Under The Poor Laws And In The Service Of The Various Unions Provide An Interesting Field For Employment For Men And Women Of Various Attainments. Being Appointments Under A Public Body, They Have All The Advantages Implied By That Fact—permanency, A Fair Scale Of Payment, ...

Postage And Revenue
Postage And Revenue Stamps.—postage Stamps Of All Values, From Id. To 135, Are Kept At Every Money Order Office, And Halfpenny And Penny Stamps At All Other Offices. Postmasters Of Money-order Offices, And All Sub-postmasters In London, Are Allowed, But Are Under No Oblioution, To Purchase Stamps From The Public, ...

Postal Orders
Postal Orders And Money Orders.—a Postal Order Is An Authority To Postmasters To Pay A Specified Sum Of Money To Some Person Therein Named. They Are Generally Used As A Means Of Transmitting Pay Ments Through The Post. They Can Be Bought At All Money-order Offices, And Are Issued For ...

Posters
Posters : How To One Nowadays Agrees On The Adver Tising Value Of The Poster, And Few Successful Advertising Campaigns Are Run Which Do Not Embody A Liberal Use Of The Hoardings. Opinions Differ As To What Is And What Is Not A Successful Poster, And As A Consequence One ...

Preliminary
Preliminary Act.—in Actions For Damage By Collision Between Vessels, The Plaintiff Is Required, Within Seven Days After The Commencement Of The Action, And The Defendant Within Seven Days After Appearance, And Before Any Pleading Is Delivered, To File A Document Called A Preliminary Act This Is Sealed Up, And Is ...

Press John Itassall
John Itassall, Press Advertising.—of The Vast Sums Of Money Spent In Adver Tising Every Year In The United Kingdom, By Far The Largest Portion Is Spent Through The Medium Of The General Press. The Main Reason For This Is Very Probably That Of All Methods Of Advertising, Press Advertising Is ...

Printers
Printers Should Have Particular Regard To The Law Relating To Libel, Contempt Of Court, And Newspapers, And Also To The Statutory Requirements In The Case Of Bills Offering Rewards. Reference Can Also Usefully Be Made To The Article On Custom. The Statute Law Directly Relating To Printers Is Mainly The ...

Printing Trade
Printing Trade : How To Start.—only The Practical Man Can Start To-day With Any Prospect Of Success In The Printing Trade. He Ought To Have Been Apprenticed To One Of Its Departments Or Have Passed Through Its Principal Branches As A Worker. The Nature Of His Business Will Depend Upon ...

Or Life Assurance
Life Assurance, Or Life Insurance As It Is Frequently Though Scarcely Correctly Termed, Is The Name Applied Generally To The System By Which One Person, Society, Or Company, Called The Assurer, In Consideration Of A Payment, Called A Premium, Made To It By Another Person Known As The Assured, Enters ...

Or Notary Public Notary
Notary, Or Notary Public, Is A Person Whose Chief Business It Is, In England, To Authenticate And Certify Commercial Documents Intended To Be Used Abroad, To Note And Protest Bills Of Exchange, And To Receive And Take Affidavits Of Shipmasters And Seamen. In This Part Of His Business A Notary ...

Or Power Of Attorney
Power Of Attorney, Or Letter Of Attorney, Is A Deed Which Authorises A Person To Act As The Agent Or Attorney Of The Person Who Executes Or Grants It. The Deed May Be In The Form Of An Indenture Or A Deed-poll, And It May Confer A General Authority Of ...