of tons and and agreements with boys.—No boy under the age of thirteen years can lawfully enter into an apprenticeship to the sea-fishing service, or any agreement with respect to that service. An indenture of apprenticeship or agreement made contrary to that rule is void. A boy under the age of sixteen years can be taken to sea to work in connection with the sea-fishing service only when he is bound by an indenture of appren ticeship or agreement made in conformity with the provisions herein after specified. A boy bound by any such agreement is called a "fishing boy." If any person takes a boy to sea, or causes a boy to be taken to sea in contravention to the foregoing, he is liable to a fine of .a0. Guardians, in apprenticing boys to the sea-fishing service, must not cause or permit any such apprenticeship to be made except in conformity with the pro visions of Part IV. (ii.) of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 ; but there is nothing therein to prevent the daily employment in a fishing-boat of any boy under the age of sixteen years, who is under no obligation to remain in that employment for more than one day, and with whom no written agree ment has been made. All superintendents are required to give to persons desirous of making indentures of apprenticeship to the sea-fishing service or agreements under Part II. (ii.) of the said Act, or of causing the same to be made, such assistance as may be in their power in reference thereto, and to supply forms of indentures or agreements at reasonable rates (if any), and may receive in respect of those indentures or agreements such fees as the Board of Trade may fix. Indentures of apprenticeship to the sea-fishing service, and agreements with boys under the age of sixteen years with respect to that service must be made before a superintendent and be in accordance with the said Act, and if made otherwise are void. A superintendent before allowing any such indenture or agreement to be completed is required to satisfy himself—(a) That the indenture or agreement complies with all the requirements of the said portion of the Merchant Shipping Act ; (b) that the master with whom it is made is a fit person for the purpose ; (c) that the apprentice or boy is not under the age of thirteen years, and is of sufficient health and strength ; and (d) that the nearest relations of the apprentice or boy or his guardian's assent, in the case of an apprentice, to the apprentice ship, and to the stipulations in the indenture, and in the case of a boy, to the stipulations of the agreement ; he is also required to make and sign an indorsement, that he is so satisfied, on the indenture or agreement. Where there are no nearest relations or guardians, or where they cannot readily be found, or are not known, the superintendent acts as guardian for the occa sion, and states in his indorsement that he has so acted. The superin tendent's indorsement is admissible in evidence in manner provided by the said Act. The indentures of apprenticeship and agreements must be in the form, and contain the covenants, provisions, stipulations, indorsements, and certificates prescribed by Order in Council, and any directions given in such forms must be complied with. The indentures and agreements must be executed in triplicate, one to be kept by the master, one by the boy, and one by the superintendent, and are exempt from stamp duty. Where an inden ture or agreement has been made before a superintendent at a port, the superintendent at that port may, by proper legal proceeding taken in his own name, enforce on behalf of the apprentice or boy against the master any stipulations therein. When an apprentice or boy is taken to sea from any port under an indenture or agreement which is void, the superintendent at that port, or if there is none, the superintendent at the nearest port, may, by proper legal proceedings taken in his own name, enforce to such extent as he thinks just, on behalf of the apprentice or boy against the master any stipulation in the void indenture or agreement which is in favour of the apprentice or boy. Where such an indenture or agreement is made before a superintendent at any port, the superintendent for the time being at that port has, and when necessary is required to execute, all the powers given to the superintendent by the indenture or agreement. If any person—(a) receives any money or valuable consideration from a person to whom such an apprentice or sea-fishing boy is bound, or from any one on that person's behalf, or from the apprentice or boy, or any one on his behalf, In consideration of the apprentice or boy being so bound ; or (b) makes or causes such payment to be made, that person is in respect of each offence guilty of a misdemeanour, whether the apprentice or boy was or was not validly bound.
of competency.—Every British foreign going ship and every British home-trade passenger ship when going to sea from any place within the United Kingdom, and every foreign steamship carrying passengers between places in the United Kingdom, must be provided witl. officers duly certificated according to the following scale :—(a) In any case with a certificated master; (b) if the ship is of one hundred tons burden or upwards, with at least one officer besides the master holding a certificate not lower than that of second mate in the case of a foreign-going sailing ship of not more than two hundred tons burden, or of only mate in the case of a foreign-going ship, or of mate in the case of a home-trading passenger ship; (c) if the ship is a foreign-going steamship, and carries more than one mate, with at least the first and second mate duly certi ficated ; (d) if the ship is a foreign - going steamship of one hundred nominal horse-power or upwards, with at least two engineers, one of whom must be a first-class and the other a second-class engineer duly certifi cated ; (e) if the ship is a foreign-going steamship of less than one hun dred nominal horse-power, or a sea-going home-trade passenger steamship, with at least one engineer who is a first-class or second-class engineer duly certificated. If any person — (a) having been engaged as one of
the above-mentioned officers goes to sea as such officer without being duly certificated ; or (b) employs a person as an officer in contravention of this regulation without ascertaining that the person so serving is duly certificated, he is liable for each offence to a fine of .V.50. An officer is not considered to be duly certificated unless he is the holder for the time being of a valid certificate of competency of a grade appropriate to his station in the ship, or of a higher grade. Certificates of competency are granted for each of the following grades : Master of a foreign-going ship ; First mate of a foreign-going ship ; Second mate of a foreign-going ship; Only mate of a foreign-going ship ; Master of a home-trade passenger ship; Mate of a home-trade passenger ship ; First-class engineer ; Second-class engineer. A certificate of com petency for a foreign-going ship is of higher grade than the corresponding certificate for a home-trade passenger ship, and entitles the lawful holder to go to sea in a corresponding grade in the last-mentioned ship ; but a certi ficate for a home-trade passenger ship does not entitle the holder to go to sea as master or mate of a foreign-going ship. For the purpose of granting certificates of competency as masters or mates to persons desirous of obtaining thein, certain qualifying examinations are held by local marine boards at their respective ports. And for the purpose of granting certificates of competency as engineers, exaniinations are held at various places determined by the Board af Trade. The Board of Trade appoint the times for the examinations; appoint, remove, and reappoint the examiners ; determine their remunera tion ; regulate the conduct of the examinations and the qualification of the applicants ; and do everything they think expedient in the matter. The Board of Trade, subject as hereinafter mentioned, deliver the appropriate certificate to every applicant who is duly reported by the examiners to have passed the examination satisfactorily, and to have given satisfactory evidence of his sobriety, experience, ability, and general good conduct on board ship. The Board may in any case in which a report appears to them to have been unduly made remit the case either to the examiners who made the report, or to any other examiners, and may require a re-examination of the applicant, or a further inquiry into his testimonials and character, before granting him a certificate. A person who has attained the rank of lieutenant, sub lieutenant, navigating lieutenant, or navigating sub-lieutenant in his Majesty's navy, or of lieutenant in his Majesty's Indian marine service, is entitled to a certificate of service as master of a foreign-going ship without examination. And one who has attained the rank of engineer or assistant engineer in his Majesty's Navy or Indian marine service, is entitled without examination, if an engineer, to a certificate of service as first-class engineer, and if an assistant engineer to a certificate of service as second-class engineer. A certificate of service differs in form from a certificate of competency, and contains the name and rank of the person to whom it is delivered ; and the Board of Trade will deliver a certificate of service to any person who proves himself entitled thereto. The provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 (including the penal provisions), apply in the case of a certificate of service as in the case of a certificate of competency, except that those provisions do not apply which allow the holder of a certificate of competency as master of a foreign-going ship to go to sea as master or inate of a home trading passenger ship. All certificates of competency are made in duplicate, one part being delivered to the person entitled to the certificate, and one being preserved. A record of certificates of competency and the suspending, cancelling, or altering of the certificates and any other matter affecting them are kept by the registrar-general of shipping and seamen. Any such certificate is admissible in evidence. If a master, mate, or engineer proves to the satisfaction of the Board of Trade that he has inadvertently lost, or been deprived of his certificate, the Board will, and in any. other case may, upon payment of such fee as they direct, cause a copy of the certificate to which he is entitled to be certified by the registrar-general of shipping and seamen, or other person, and to be delivered to him. Such copy has the effect of, the original. On signing the agreement with the crew before a superintendent the master of a foreign-going ship must produce to him the certificates which the master, mates, and engineers are required to hold, and there are other requirements in the case of a running agreement. If any person —(a) forges or fraudulently alters, or assists in forging or fraudulently altering, or pro cures to be forged or fraudulently altered, any certificate of competency, or an official copy of such certificate, or (b) makes, or assists in making, or pro cures to be made, any false representation for the purpose of procuring either for himself or for any other person a certificate of competency, or (c) fraudu lently uses a certificate or copy of a certificate of competency which has been forged, altered, cancelled, or suspended, or to which he is not entitled, or (d) fraudulently lends his certificate of competency, or allows it to be used by any other person, he is for each offence guilty of a misdemeanour.