AL110HADES, the name of a dynasty that ruled in Africa and Spain during the 12th and 13th c. The word is Arabic, and signifies Unitarians. It was taken as a term of distinction ; for the A. considered themselves the only Mohammedans who worshiped God properly. The founder of this sect, which at first was religious rather than political, was called Mohammed Ibn-Toumert, a native of the Atlas region. He was a man of a bold and subtile intellect, and extremely ambitious. He had traveled much, and acquired a manifold knowledge and experience. His first measures were extremely prudent. He commenced preaching with great zeal the reformation of all abuses, affecting himself an austere and unselfish life. He went about covered with rags, prohibiting wine, music, and all pleasures. At first his denunciations wero generally held in contempt ; but at length his partisans became so numerous, that Ali, king of Morocco, was compelled to take measures against him. It was, however, too
late. The Arabs and Berbers flocked to his standard ; and at the end of a few years he was master of the provinces of Fez, Morocco, Tleinzen, Oran, and Tunis. Mohammed imposed on his disciples new ceremonies, and composed for their benefit a special treatise entitled On the Unity of' God. The A. extended their conquests into Spain, subjugating Andalusia, Granada, Valencia, and a part of Aragon, and Portugal as far as the Ebro and Tagus. Mohammed was succeeded in his authority by Abdelmoumen, who had formerly been his lieutenant. tinder him and his descendants, Jussuf and Jacob, the dynasty of the A. continued to flourish in great splendor. But in 1212 they were completely defeated by the Spaniards in the famous battle of Tolosa, the result of which was a general revolt of the Christian provinces under their sway. The power of the A. was destroyed iu Spain in 1257, and in Africa in 1269.