MUTSUHITO or Mtars-urro. The present reigning emperor of Japan, and the 123t1 mikado of the line. His name means the " man of peace," or "weak man." He has no family name. He is the second son of the mikado Koine' Tenni) (1847-67); his mother Fill•ore Asako. He was born Nov. 3, 1850, and crew up in the palace at Kioto, never seeing a foreigner until his nineteenth year. On time de:,111 of his father Jan. 30, 1867, he was declared emperor under the care of a regent Upon the coup d'etat of lwaleura and others, .Jan. 3, 1868, the regent was dismissed. Mutlsuhito became the active mikado, and the new government was proclaimed; the decree abolishing forever the office of " tycoon " being elated Feb. 4. On March 23 he gave the filet audience ever granted by an emperor of Japan to representatives of Christian nations, the envoys of France and Holland being admitted, The British minister (see Rumen, Sum. Ii. S.) who on the 27tlyittempted audience, had Ida cortege-attacked by assassins. On March 28 ilie-iniperiel decree Was issued by whictr treaty relations with foreign nations were for the first time acknowledged by the mikado, and all fanatics who should attack foreigners were outlawed. On April 6, in the great hall of the castle of Nijo in
Kioto, occurred the most momentous act of his life, and thence dates the real beginning of modern Japan. In presence of the court nobles and feudal princes (daimios) the mikado took the oath which is now the basis of the new government. The first clause of this oath is as follows: " The practice of discussion and debate shall be universally adopted, and all measures shall be adopted by public argument." Besides this lie promised that the "uncivilized customs of former times" should be broken through, and intellect and learning sought for throughout the world, to assist in leading Japan into the path of modern civilization. From this oath the reforms of the past twelve years have pro ceeded, and the drift of Japanese politics toward constitutional government has begun. On Feb. 7, 1860, he removed the national capital to Tokio, and soon after married Ichijo Tadaka, a noble lady of 2d degree of the 1st rank. In 1872 he adopted European dress and habits of life, and has since made many tours throughout the empire, completely revolutionizing the old traditional court and governmental etiquette.