NANKING', capital of the province of Kiangsu, formerly the capital of China, on the Yangtse river, 90 an from the beginning of its estuary, n. lat. 32' 40' 40', e. long 118° 47'. Its name signifies the southern capital. Since the removal of the seat of government to Peking (northern capital) it has been called by the Chinese Kiangning fn. The walls inclose an area of nearly 20 in. in circumference, the greater part of which, however, is entirely waste. They reach in many places an elevation of 70 ft., and are fully 30 ft. in thickness at the base. According to Chinese accounts, the population of Nanking was once 4,000,000, but a more recent estimate made it 360,000. As the city, however, has of late passed through so many vicissitudes, it is impossible to ascertain its present num ber of inhabitants. The inhabited portion of the walled area lies toward the west, and several miles from the bank of the river. It is no longer possible to speak of Nan 4 king. in the language which former travelers used. The barbaric desolations to which it was subjected during the Taeping rebellion left it a sort of wreck. and one can only describe it as it was, before the victorious assault of the rebels. Mar. 19, 1853. Nanking is the scat of the vice-regal government for the provinces grouped together under the name of Kiangnan. Here, as elsewhere in China, there was, and again is. a _Manchu garrison, or military colony, separated by a wall from that portion of the city which is occupied by the Chinese. Some of the finest streets of Nanking were in the Tartar city; several being nearly 40 ft. wide, having a space in the middle of about 8 ft. in width, flagged with well-hewn blocks of blue and white marble, and on each side of this a brick pavement 14 ft. or more wide. A deep canal or ditch runs from the river directly under the walla on the w., serving to strengthen the defenses of the city on that side. The ancient palaces have all disappeared. The offices of the public functionaries were numerous. but, like the shops, presented the general features common to all Chinese towns. The objects most worthy the inspection of the traveler are found, in ruins, out side the precincts of the-modern city, Among these is the summer palace of the emperor Kienlung. _ It-ifonSIsted of a number of one-story 'buildings, with spacious courts between, and flanked by smaller buildings on the sides. Enough still remains to show that the workmanship was of the most elaborate and unique character. When under cultivation, the spot must have been exceedingly beautiful. The tombs of the kings are remarkable for their sepulchral statues, winch form an avenue leading up to the graves; they consist of gigantic figures, like warriors cased in a kind of armor, standing on either side of the road, across which, at intervals, large stone tablets are extended, supported by huge blocks of stone instead of pillars. Amon°. v
the buildings totally daatroyed by the rebels was the far-famed Porcelain tower. Among was erected by the emperor Yull_ 210h, to reward the kindness of his mother; the work was commenced in the 10th year of his reign (1413), at noon, on the 15th day of the moon, in the 6th month of the year, and was comrfleted in 19 years. The board of works was ordered, according to the plan of the emperor, to build a tower 9 stories high, the bricks and tiles to be glazed, and of "fine colors;" and it was to be superior to all others, in order to make widely known the virtues of his mother. Its height was to be 322 feet. The hall on its spire was to be of brass, overlaid with gold, so that it might last for ever and never grow dim. From its 8 hooks as many iron chains extended to the S corners of its highest roof; and from each chain 9 bells, suspended at equal distances apart; these, to aher with 8 from the corners of each projecting roof, amounted to 144" bells. On the outer face of each story were 16 lanterns, 128 in all; which, with 12 in the inside, made 140. It require.' 64 cattier of oil to till them. On the top of the highest roof were two brazen vessels. weighing together 1200 pounds, and a brazen howl besides, weighing 600 pounds. Encireling the spire were 9 iron rings, the largest being 63 ft. in circumference, and the smalleat 24 ft., altogether weighing nearly 5,000 pounds. In the bowl the top were deposited one white shining pearl, onofire-averting pearl, one wind -averting pearl, one water-averting pearl, one dust-averting pearl, a lump of gold weighing 50 ounces, a box of tea-leaves, 1000 taels of silver, one lump of orpiment, altogether weighing 4,000 pounds; one precious stone-gem, 1000 stringy of copper coin, two pieces of yellow satin, and four copies of Buddhist classics, Nanking continued in possession of the Tae-ping rebels till the successes of the troops under maj. Gordon had crushed one after another all their outlying forces, when at length, July 19, 1864, the city was stormed by the imperialist soldiers under the viceroy Tseng Kwo-fan. The last blow was thus dealt to the Tae-ping rebellion, whose principal leader perished by his own hand amid the blazing ruins of the palace he had occupied for 11 years. Since its recapture, Nanking has resumed its f _i•ner position as the seat of the vice-regal government, but shows few,signs of revival from its desolation. It has, however, been made the headquarters of a large military force, and also of an arsenal for the manufacture of cannon and other warlike stores on the European model. Although specified in the treaty of Tientsin (1858) as a river-port to be opened, little or nothing has come of this concession, and but few foreigners are resident in Nanking. Cotton grows abundantly near Nanking.