Revenue, etc.—By the budget for 1876-77, the revenue was estimated at 39.200,00 kroner (the krone, worth 1s. 14d., having in 1875 superseded the old specie-daler), or about £2,190,420, the expenditure being presumed to equal the receipts. The national debt of Norway amounted in 1875 to 48,307,600 kroner.
Administration, etc,—Norway is divided into 20 amts, or administrative circles, as given in the table. The circles are subdivided into 56 fogderier (bailiwicks), each pre sided over by a rural magistrate, and containing in all 446 herreder, or administra tive districts, which have similarly their judicial or official heads. Norway has a representative government. based on the constitution which was established in 1814, and ratified at Eidsvold. The Storthing, or legislative chamber, meets annually, and is composed of representatives who are elected by deputies who have been selected for the purpose of nominating the members. These deputies are elected by a system of almost unrestricted universal suffrage, the only qualifications necessary being the attainment of the age of 25, and the possession of property in land to the value of 150 sp. d., or a five years' tenancy of such property. The election of the deputies takes place every third year, when the electors meet in their respective parish churches, and choose deputies, whose number is in the proportion of 1 to 50 voters for towns, and 1 for 100 in rural dis tricts. These deputies then select from their own body, or from among other eligible persons, the representatives for the Storthing, which is further subdivided into two dis tinct chambers, the Lagthing and Odelsthing, with the former of whom rests the fram ing legislative and financial measures, and with the latter the power of accepting or rejecting them, and the right of taking cognizance of the conduct of the ministers, judges, and other officers of the state. The members of the Storthing receive an allow ance for their time and traveling expenses during the session. The Storthing votes the taxes, which are collected by officers of the king of Sweden and Norway; it proposes laws, which must be ratified by the king; but if they pass the Storthing three times, they acquire validity even without the king's sanotion. Although Norway constitutes one joint kingdom with Sweden in regard to succession, external policy and diplomacy, it is in all other respects an independent state, having its own government, legislative king machinery, finances, army, and navy. The kin.. is indeed commander-in-chief of all the forces of the country, whether military or naval ;but he can neither augment nor decrease their number, nor proclaim peace or war without the assent of the Norwegian Council of State, which must consist of ten members, natives of the country; nor, excepting in time of war, can he bring foreign soldiers within the frontiers, or send native troops out of Norway. In aecordance with the constitution, no title can be conferred independ ently of the tenure of office, and no one can be raised to the rank of a noble; while with the death of the members of the few still surviving noble families who were born before 1821, all personal honors, privileges, and distinctions belonging to the nobility will cease. The constitution may therefore be regarded as purely democratic in its charac
ter. The council of state constitutes the highest court of justice, under whose jurisdic tion the provincial magistrates or amtnutend administer justice, in conjunction with the bailiffs and 6orenskninzr or advocates, who preside over petty rural courts. These lower courts are controled by the Stift or diocesan courts of justice; while the latter are, in their turn, under the high court of appeal, or Hoiecte Ret, which is located at Christi ana.
Religion, etc.—The Lutheran is the predominant church, to which all persons holding public offices of trust must belong, although freedom is alloWed to all Other Christian denominaticins and to Jews. The church is under the administration of six bishops, whose sees are Christiania, Christiansand, Trondhjem, Bergen, Hamar, and Tromso. There are 80 deaneries, 437 higher rectories. 900 parish and district, town and country churches in all. There were, in 1S70, 532 beneficed clergymen, and 337 theological candidates without fixed preferment. The whole number of dissenters in that year did not exceed 5,200. The clergy who receive tithes, exercise considerable influence in remote country districts, where they frequently are called upon, to settle disputes, and exercise various judicial functions Much has been done of late years in Norway for the diffusion of knowledge, and provision is now made to extend education to the inhabitants of the most inaccessible districts by means of itinerant teachers, a certain number of whom, corresponding to the number of farms in each parish, are nominated to the office of schoolmaster. These men proceed from house to house, being supplied with a schoolroom, and fed and entertained by each householder in succession for the number of days at which the farm is mulcted; and by the aid of these means, education is so universally diffused that it is rare to meet with Norwegians who cannot read and write. In 1869 there were 150 higher poor schools, 15 normal schools for the parish-school teachers, 96 higher private schools, 15 military, naval, and navigation schools, and 12 polytechnic institutions. The expenses incurred for education were, for the country districts, .365,000 sp. d., and for the towns, 111,367 sp. d. The university of Christiania (q.v.). which was founded in 1811, has 47 professors, and is attended by about 1000 students, amongst whom are the sons of many of the peasant land-owners, who receive a university education without intending to follow the learned pro fessions.