SENECA. L. ANN,EUS, son of M. ANN,EITS, and a celebrated pbilosoplmr, was also born at Corduba, a few years B.C. When a child, he was brought by his father to Roan', where be was initiated in the study of eloquence. He eared more, however, for phi losophy, in which his first teacher was the Pythagorean Ballot], whom lie afterward left to follow Altahis the Stoic. He traveled in Greece and Egypt; and, in ohedienqe to his father's wishes, he pleaded in courts of law; but, notwithstanding his forensic tri umphs. lie left the bar from fear of Calignin's jealousy. On entering into public life, he filled the office of quirstor, and had already risen high in the favor of the emperor Clan. dins, when he wt; ; accused of an adulterous connection with Julia, the daughter of-Ger maniens, and wife of Vinicius. He was exiled to Corsica, where he remained for eight years, deriving from philosophy what consolation lie could, while incessantly complain ing with a tw no means philosophic querulousness, and appealing to the emperor for pardon. When Claudius married his second wife. Agrippina, Seneca was recalled by her infitIcnee. raised to time prictorship, and appointed instructor of her son Nero. On the death of his governor and military tutor, Burros, Nero gave way to his depraved passions with a force which Seneca could not control. All his influence over his pupil was lost, hut he profited by his extravagant bounty to such a degree that his accumulated wealth amounted to 300,000 sestertia, or to X2.421,870 of our money. Nero soon began to look with envious eyes on this fortune; and Seneca, to avert dangerous consequences, offered, with much tact, to refund to the emperor his gifts, and begged leave to retie. on , a small allowance. This Nero declined: and Seneca, under pretense of illness, shut him self up and refused to appear in public. Nero then attempted to have him poisoned, but failed. A short time afterward, Antonins Natalis. when on his trial for participat
ing in the conspiracy of Piso, implicated Seneca as one of the conspirators. This was quite enoimh to fix tienectes guilt. lie was sentenced to put himself death. His wife, PanIlina, declared tier resolution to die with him, and• in spite of his remonstrances, accompanied hint into the bath in which. accordimr to his own choice, he was to be bled to death. The emperor, however, would not allow PauMita to die, but removed her from her husband, who gradually expired, 65 A.D. Seneea'a extant writing are on morel subjects. slid consist of Epistles, and of Treatises on Anger. Consolation, Provi dence. Tranquillity of Mind, Philosophical Constancy, Clemency, The Shortness of Life, A Happy Life, Philosophical Retirement, and Benefits. lie also speculated on physical phenomena, and wrote seven books entitled Qucestiones Niaterates, in which he is thought, to have anticipated some notions regarded as principles in modern physics. Ten trage dies, ascribed to him by Quintilian, end generally included in editions of his works, have also come down to us; but whether he is really their author remains still a dubious and debated point. Some allege that they were the work .of his father, Seneca the rhetori cian; some that they must be attributed to another Seneca. They were not intended, and are certainly not adapted, for the stage. They are overcharged with declamation; and, if rich in moral sentiments, are wanting in dramatic life. Of his genuine prose writings, modern opinion takes a divided view; some critics praising his practical sagac ity, others finding him wanting in speculative reach. It is perhaps a significant feet, that lie is admired by French scholars and disparaged by German. One of the best all Cons of the prose works is the Bipontine, 1809; of the tragedies, that of Bothe, 1810.