SIMONY, in English law, is the corruptpresentation of any one to an ecclesiastical benefice for gift money or reward, and is so called from its resemblance to the sin of Simon Magus. In the canon law it was congidered a heinous crime, and a kind of heresy. As the canonical punishment, however, was not deemed sntheient, a was passed in the time of Elizabeth, defining its punishment. A simoniacal presenta tion was declared to be utterly void, and the person giving or taking the gift or reward forfeited double the value of one year's profit; and the pefson accepting the benefice was disabled from ever holding the same benefice. Presentation bonds, however. taken by a patron from a presentee to resign the benefice at a future period in favor of some one to be named by the patron, are not illegal provided the nominee is either by blood or marriage an uncle, son, grandson, brother, nephew, or grand nephew of the patron, and provided the bond is registered for public inspection in the diocese. The result of time statutes is that it is not simony for a layman or spiritual person, not purchasing for himself, to purchase while the church is full, either an atlyowson or next presentation, however immediate may be the prospect of a vacancy, unless that vacancy is to be occa sioned by some agreement or arrangement between the parties. Nor is it simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself an advowson. although under similar circum stances. It is, however, simony for any person to purchase the next presentation while the church is vacant; and it is simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself the next presentation, although the church be full.
SE110031', or SIMOON (otherwise written Simoun, Semoun, Samoun, Samiln), or Sam bull, st name derived from the Arabic gamma. poisonous, or generally whatever is disagreeable or dangerous, and applied the hot soffocating winds are peculiar to the hot sandy deserts of Africa and western Asia. In Egypt it is railed kleantsin (Ir. fifty) because it generally continues to blow for 50 days, Egypt the end of April to the dine of the inundation of the Nile.
Owing to the great power of the sun's rays, the extreme dryness of the air, end the small conducting power of sand causing the accumulation of heat on the surface. the superficial layers of sand in the deserts of Africa stud Arabia often become heated to 200' Fehr. to a depth of several inches. The air resting on this hot sand becomes also highly heated, thus giving rise to ascending currents; air consequently flows toward these heated places from all sides, and these different currents meeting, cyclones or whirling masses of air are formed, which are swept onward by the wind prevailing. at the time. Since the temperature, originally high, is still further raised by the heated grains
of sand with which the air is loaded, it rapidly increases to a degree almost intolerable. In the shade it was observed by Burckhardt in 1813 to have risen to 122'; and by the British embassy to Abyssinia in 1841 to 126'. It is to the parching dryness of this wind, its glowing heat (about 200°),•and its choking dust, and not to any poisonous Qualities it possesses, that its destructive effects on animal life are to be ascribed.
The approach of the simoom is first indicated by a thin haze along the horizon, which rapidly becomes denser and quickly overspreads the whole sky. Fierce gusts of wind follow, accompanied with clouds of red and burning sand, which often present the appearance of huge columns of dust whirling forward; and vast mounds of sand are transported from place to place by the terrible energy of the tempest. By these mounds of sand large caravans are frequently destroyed; and even great armies have been over whelmed by them, as in the case of Cambyses, who was overtaken by the simoom on his march through the desert to pillage the temple of Jupiter Ammon, and perished with 50,000 of his troops. The destruction of Sennacherib's army is supposed to have been caused by the simoom. The simoom generally lasts from 6 to 12 hours, but some times for a longer period.
The effects of this wind are felt in neighboring regions, where it is known under different names, and it is subject to important modifications by the nature of the earth's surface over which it passes. In Italy it is called the sirocco, which blows occasionally over Sicily, s. Italy, and adjoining districts. It is a hot moist wind, receiving its heat from the Sahara and acquiring its moisture in its passage northward over the Mediterranean. It is the plague of Sicily and Naples, and while it lasts a haze obscures the atmosphere, and such is the fatigue which it occasions that the streets of Palermo become quite deserted. The sirocco sometimes extends to the shores of the Black and Caspiau seas, and under its blighting touch sheep and cattle die in the steppes beyond the Volga. and vegetation is withered and dried up. It is called the samiel in Turkey from its reputed poisonous qualities.—The solano of Spain is a s e. wind, extremely hot, and loaded with fine dust, which prevails at certain seasons in the plains of Mancha and Andalusia, particularly at Seville and Cadiz. It produces giddiness and heats the blood to an unusual degree, causing general uneasiness and irritation; hence the Spanish proverb„ "Ask no favor during the solano."—The barmattan (q.v.) of Guinea and Sene gambia belongs to the same class of winds.