SHAH-JEHAN, or "king of the world," the title assumed on his accession to the throne by Khorrum Shah, the third sou of Selim Jehan-Ghir, and the fifth of the Mogul emperors of Delhi. He was during his father's reign employed in military expeditions tgainst the Itajmits, the independent Mohammedan states of the Deccan, and the Afghan tribes around Caudahar, in which he greatly distinguished himself by bravely and mili tary skill; but on his return he was forced into rebellion (1623) by the intrigues of his enemies at court, :it'd was still unreconciled to his father at the latter's death in 1627, when lie was at once saluted as emperor by the nobles. At his accession the empire had reached the summit of its greatness, but the causes which lead to its rapid decline at the same time unmistakably showed themselves; the territory was too extensive for the system of government which was generally pursued by the Moguls; the discordant parts were unconnected by any bond of union; the supreme ruler was looked upon in many provinces as a mere tax-collector; and with the thus necessary absence of any spirit of loyalty, insurrections were frequent in all the provinces. The chief events of Shah Jehan's reign were the war against the Deccan sovereignties, which resulted in the complete destruction of the kingdom of Ahmednuggur (1631), and the subjugation (1636) of those of Beejapur and Golconda; an indecisive contest against the Uzbeks of Balkh (1644 47); two unsuccessful attempts to recover Candahar from the Persians; and a second successful war, conducted by his third son; Aurun(zebe. against the Deccan
princes (1655). But in 1657 the emperor fell dangerously ill, and his four sons, who were ambitions of attaining supreme power, immediately commenced to dispute regard ing the succession. Sec Ultimately Shah-Jell:In was taken prisoner, confined in the citadel of Agra till his death. Dec.. 1666. Shali-delian united the voluptuous profligacy so common in eastern monarchs with great sagacity. and the strict administration of justice to Moslem and Hindu alike. In his later years he became avaricious, increased the taxes, and confiscated the property aids wenithier subjects on the slightest pretexts. The magnificence of his court was unequaled; the splendid "pea cock throne" was constructed by his orders at a cost of about £7,000,000, and many magnificent public buildings executed tinder his direction remain as monuments of his greatness. Chief of these are the city of Shah-Jehamillad, and the superb mausoleum of Tajmahal (see Aorta). Yet so strict was his financial management that he left a well appointed army of 200,000, and 'a treasury containing £24,000,000, to his son Aurung yebe.