TORSTENSOHN, LEONARD, Count of Ortala, the most active, enterprising, and suc cessful of the Swedish generals who were engaged in the Thirty Years' war (q.v.), was born at Torstena, Aug. 17, 1603, became one of the royal pages in 1618, and attended Gustavus Adolphus in most of his earlier campaigns. When Gustavus entered Ger many in 1630, Torstensohn was cant. of the" body-guard; and the brilliant services he rendered at Breitenfeld, the Lech, and on other occasions, were rewarded wit!: rapid promotion. Taken prisoner at the combat of Nuremberg (Aug. 24, 1632), he was sub jetted to rigorous treatment, which so ruined his health, that on his exchange six months after, he returned to his post in the Swedish army a confirmed invalid ; yet a vigorous mind and energetic character so overmastered bodily infirmity, that though reduced to the necessity of being always conveyed in a litter, he proved himself a most able officer under Bernhard of Weimar and Batter, the successors of Gustavus. In 1641, on the death of his former chief, the able and chivalrous Bauer, he was appointed to the command-in-chief of the Swedes in Germany. His military career was marked by a brilliancy of conception, fertility of resource, resolute daring, and above all, by an extra ordinary rapidity of execution, which broadly distinguished it from those of his contem poraries. and set at naught all the precautionary and defensive measures of his opponents. Having recruited and equipped his army, he invaded Silesia, routed the Austrians at Glogau and Schweidnitz, reduced most of Moravia, and being pressed back into Saxony by the archduke Leopold and Piccolomini, gallantly turned upon the multitude of his pursuers (Nov. 2, 1642), and on the field of Breitenfeld, where Tilly's reputation for invincibility was cast down the dust by Gustavus, inflicted a bloody defeat on the same adversaries; he then resumed the execution of his plans of invasion, and laid Moravia and Austria under contribution. Ferdinand III., despairing of protecting his territories from Torstensohn, negotiated with Christian IV. of Denmark to make a diversion by invading Sweden; but Torstensohn, with characteristic promptitude, left Moravia in Sept., 1643, traversed Saxony and the Upper Palatinate, burst into Holstein, and in less titan six week subjugated the Danish mainland. The Austrians under Gallus followed in pursuit of him. to aid their allies, but arrived too late; and in attempting to coop him up in Holstein, were routed, and driven into Saxony; and again totally defeated (Nov. 23, 1644) at Jeterbogk, in attempting to bar his return into Bohemia. Gallas was now deposed; but a combination of talented generals, as Montecuculi, Goertz, and others, was found to be equally ineffective against the resistless Swede, who, by a great victory at Yankovitz (Feb. 14, 1613), secured the navigation of the Danube, and
the possession of the hereditary countries north of it. The emperor, empress. and nobility now deserted the capital; the Saxons again joined the Swedes; and the Danes, routed at sea as well as on land, besought pence, which was granted (Aug. 13, 1643). At this time, when a few more of Torstensohn's weighty blows would have completely unseated the Hapsburg family; his gradually increasing ailments compelled him to resign the command to one very much his inferior, and retire to Sweden, where he experienced a most distinguished reception from queen Christina, was created a count, and appointed to various high offices successively. He died at Stockholm, April 7, 1631.
TORT (Lat. tortes), in the law of England, includes all these wrongs for which a remedy by compensation or damages is given in a court of law, and which wrongs arise irrespective of any contract. Such are assaults, imprisonments, taking one's goods without title, injury to one's hotly or character. The general ride of law was, that the right of action for a tort died with the person who committed it; but this defect his been cured by a statue to it certain extent. If the wrong was done within six months preceding the wrongdoer's death, an . action may be brought against his excentor3 within six months after they have assumed office. So if time injured party lived, be could always bring an action of damages; but if he died, his executors or relatives could not do so, until lord Campbell's act enabled the wife, husband, parent., or child of such deceased injured patty to sue for damages; and in such case the jury may appor tion the damages between the widow and children who sue. The right to bring an action for a tort is limited to two, four, or six years respectively, according to the nature of the wrong.—In Scotland, there is no time limited for bringing the action.
TORT (ante) in law, differs from a breach of contract in these respects: that the dr.1111 of either party to the tort ends the right of action, that joint tort-feasors are severall liable, with no right of contribution from each other; and that persons under disability to contract are liable for their torts. One of the chief distinctions between torts an 1 crimes is that in the latter a criminal intent must be proved, while in the former intent is immaterial; yet in some torts, e.g., slander or malicious prosecution, a malicious intent is essential. Torts may be committed against the person, as assault mid hattery, fake imprisonment; or against one's character, as libel and slander; or against property, trespass or trover. Au injured party cannot recover for an injury in any way eon tributed to by his own wrong; and to maintain an action there must be a loss as well as a wrong.