TRASIME'NUS LACUS, the ancient name of an Italian lake (lago Trasimeno, or laga di Perugia) lying between the towns of Cortona and Perugia. It is about 10 m. in length by 8 in breadth; the greatest depth is not above 30 ft.. has no apparent outlet, and the margins are flat and overgrown with reeds. It is surrounded on all sides by hills, those on the north side, extending from Cortona to the lake, being known as the Guaiandro hills—the monies Cortonenses of Livy—covered at the present day with oak, vine, and olive plantations. The lake contains three islands. Trasimenus Lacus is memorable chiefly for the great victory obtained by Hannibal in 217 B.C. during the second Punic war, over the Romans, under their consul, C. Flaminius. Hannibal, leaving Fxsulm, passed close by the camp of Flaminius at Arretium, laying waste the country as he proceeded in the direction of Rome. This, as the Carthaginian gen. intended, induced the consul to breakup his encampment. and follow in pursuit, Han nibal in the meantime taking up a strong position on the hills on the n. side of the lake, along which lie was passing. The consul coining up early next morning, when the whole place was enveloped in mist, saw only the troops in front on the hill of Tuoro, with whom he was preparing to engage, when he found himself surrounded and attacked on all sides. The Carthitginians thus had the Romans completely in their power, and took
such advantage of the opportunity that 16,000 Roman troops are said to have been either massacred or drowned in the lake, Flaminius himself being among the first who fell: 6,000 troops who had forced their way through the enemy, surrendered next day to Maliarbal. It is said both by Li vy and Pliny that the fury on both sides was so great as to render the combatants unconscious of the shock of an earthquake which occurred during the battle.
TRAS-OSZIONTiS (beyond the mountains), a province of Portugal, forming the n.e. corner of the country, is bounded on the n. and e. by Spain, on the s. by the river lThmro, and on the w. by the Portuguese province of Minho. Area, 4,275 sq.m.•, pop. '74. 416,761. It is in the 'main a cold plateau, with bare mountain masses, broken by deep romantic ravines; but the port-wine district, known as the Alto-Douro, is very pleasant. Considerable quantities of wheat and rye are raised, but the chief prod nels are wine and oil. In several places, the silk-worm cultivation is prosecuted with success. Fruits, especially oranges, are produced abundantly in the valleys, and sumach (in the mountains, which are also rich in unutilized metallic wealth.