AVERAGE (in marit. law). A rule was established by the Rhodian- law (q.v.), and has prevailed in every maritime nation, that where a loss has been sustained, or expense incurred, for the geueral safety of the ship and cargo, a contribution should he made, in proportion to their respective interests, by the owners of the 'ship, freight, and goods on board; or, in modern times. by the insurers of these. To this contribution the name of general A. is given. The apparel, jewels, and other personal property of the passengers, not carried for purposes of traffic, and the seamen's wages and provisions, are not liable for any share in this contribution. Goods thrown overboard are now esUmated at the price they would have yielded at the port of delivery at the time, freight. chides, etc., being deducted. See JETTISON. Partienla7 1„ again, is the loss of an anchor, the starting of a plank, the leaking of a cask, the loss of goods washed from the deck, or the like, where the common safety was not in question, and where there is, consequently-, no contribution. To losses of this description, the term A., though generally-, is Incor
rectly applied. Petty averages are the duties of anchorage, ere. If these occur in the ordinary course of the voyage, they are not loss, but simply part of the expense necessarily incurred. But if they have been incurred in extraordinary circumstances, and for the purpose of avoiding impending danger, they are a loss which is included in the general A., and covered by the contribution. 4. bond is a deed which parties liable to a general A. are in the habit of executing, by which they empower an arbiter to value the property lost, and fix the proportion shall be borne by each proprietor.