BERENGARTUS OF TOURS, a distinguished scholastic theologian, was b. at Tours, in France, 998 A.D. IIis master, Fulbert de Chartres, is reported to have prophesied on his death-bed that Berengarius would prove a dangerous man. In 1030, he was appointed preceptor of the school of St. :Martin, in 'I ours, and in 1040, made archdeacon of Augers. Here he continued to deliver his metaphysico•theological prelections, and drew upon himself the charge of heresy, in reference to the doctrine of transubstantiation. He held the doctrine of Scotus Erigeua, that the bread and wine in the sacrament of the eucharist remained bread and wine, and that the faith of the believer who recognized their symbolic meaning only transformed them subjectively into the body and blood of Christ. This interpretation was condemned by pope Leo IX., 10I9-1030, and also by king IIenry I. of France. In 1054, he retracted his opinion before tha council of Tours, but what Berengarius meant by "retractation" it is not easy to see, for he immediately returned to his conviction, and recommenced the advocacy of it. For this
he was cited to appear at Rome, where lie repeatedly abjured his "error," but never seems to have really abandoned it. Hildebrand, who was then pope, treated him with great moderation; and at last, when he discovered bow hopeless it was to bind down lierengarins by abjurations or declarations. he conceived it best to let him alone. Harassed and weakened by tlic attacks of the orthodox party, headed by Laufranc of Canterbury, he finally retired to the isle of St. Cosinas, near Tours, in 1080, lie spent the lust years of his life in devotional exercises. He died in 1088. The greater number of his works are lost; such as are extant have been collected and published by the Vischers (Berlin, 1834).