BOLSWARD' (Lat. Barerda), an old t. in the Netherlands, province of Friesland, lies 15 in. s.w. from Leeuwarden. It is surrounded by a high earthen wall and broad canal. The church of St. Martin, in the Gothic style, is the largest and handsomest in Fries land. There are several benevolent institutions. and a grammar-s•hool. The trade is chiefly in butter, cheese. and cattle. Ship-building, tanning leather. making brick and coarse pottery, spinning worsted, carding wool, etc., are the isrincipal industries. Pop. i0,5181.
BOLTON (-LE-Moo'ns), an important English manufacturing town, in South Lan cashire, on the Croal, 11 miles north-west of Manchester. It was celebrated as far back as the time of Henry VIII. for its cotton and its woolen manufactures, introduced by Flemish clothiers in the 14th century. Emigrants from France and the palatinate of the Rhine subsequently introduced new branches of manufacture- and the improvements in of the middle of the 18th c., rapidly increased the trade of the town. Though Arkwright and Crompton belonged to B.. the opposition of the working Cla.W.1 long retarded the adoption, in their native town, of their inventions—the spinning.-frame and the mule. B., containing more than 70 cotton mills. with 21 million of spindles, is
now one of the principal seats of the cotton manufacture in Lancashire. Muslins, fine calicoes,.quiltings, counterpanes, dimities, etc., are manufactured. There are 40 foundries and iron-works, and numerous dye-works. The lexicographers Ainsworth and Lempricre were masters of B. grammar-school. During the civil war, the parliament garrisoned Bolton. In 1644 it was stormed by the earl of Derby; and after the battle of Worcester, that unfortunate nobleman was beheaded there. Pop. '71, 92,655. Since 1832 it has returned two members to parliament. B. parish has numerous coal mines. Between B. and Wigan much cannel-coal occurs, and is often made into snuff boxes, candlesticks, etc.
in the rigging of a ship, is the rope to which the edges of sails are sewn, to strengthen and prevent them from tearing. It is of three kinds,. according to its position—a leech-rope up the perpendicular edge of the sail. apot-rope along the bottom edge, and a load-rope along the top edge. Some sails, owing to their shape, have no head-rope. All the cordage employed in furling and unfurling the sail is fastened to the bolt-rope.