I : AUGUSTUS, Elector of Saxony (1553-158G), son of duke Henry the pions, and of Katherine of Mecklenburg, was b. July 31, 1520, at Freiberg, then the seat of his father's court. While still a youth, he spent some time at Prague, and there formed an intimate friendship with Maximilian, king Ferdinand's son, afterwards emperor of In 1548, he married Anna, daughter of Christian III. of Denmark, who was universally popular on account of her devoted adherence to Luthenmism and of her domestic worth. After the death of his brother Maurice in 1553, A. succeeded to the electorate. llis rule is chiefly noticeable as bearing upon the history of the newly established Prot estant church. Equally intolerant and Inconsistent in his theology. A. first used his utmost influence in favor of the Calvinistic doctrine of the sacraments; and then, in 1574, adopted the Lutheran tenets. and persecuted the Calvinists. On the other hand, however, it must be owned, to his honor, that, by his skillful internal administm tion, lie raised his country far above the level of any other in Germany, introducing valuable reforms both in jurisprudence and finance, and giving a decided impetus to Gaucat mu, agriculture, manufactures, and • colnmerte. He 'even wrote a book on the
management of orchards and gardens, and commanded that every newly-married pair should, within the first year of their marriage, plant two fruit-trees. The Dresden library owes its origin to him, as do also most of its galleries of art and science. His own favorite private pursuit was that of alchemy, in which the eleetress Anna also took a part. In the Jan. of 1586—the electress having died in the previous year—A. married a young princess of Anhalt, but died a month after, and was buried in the cathedral of Freiberg. Ile was succeeded by his son, Christian I.