BLIND, TILE, those who are either partially or totally deprived of the sense of sight. Only a few are born blind, the greater number becoming so by accidents, small-pox, or diseases of the eye (q.v.), so that more than one half are above the age of fifty. Blindness prevails most in tropical. and least in temperate countries; more in theeastern than the western hemisphere. There arc about 30,000 in the British isles. The balance between the outer and the inner world being disturbed, there is a tendency among the blind to self-consciousnesS, self-opinionativenesS, and a desire to become the objects of attention, and, if possible. surprise, if not admiration; hence there is more avowed infidelity than in any other class, although probably much of it. is assumed, to attract attention, and display their controversial powers. As these tendencies are not strong in individuals, bit; become intensified when they are congregated together, it is now generally admit ted that the more they associate with the seeing, and the less with one another, the better.
The first institution for the blind was founded in Memmingen by Weef VI., in 1178; the second, in Paris, by St Louis. in 1260; the first for the employment of the adult blind was opened in Edinburgh by Dr. Johnston, in 1703. There were in 1873 148 institutions for the blind in time weJd, two thirds of which have only recently been established. Though the blind, in general, are more or less dependent, yet many have earned a com fortable living, and even attained distinction in departments generally supposed to he to them inaccessible. The employments most adapted to their abilities are the tanking of baskets, brushes, mattresses, rugs, and such like; and for the women, sewing, knit ting, and hair-plaiting. Many also have successfully competed with the seeing as musicians, music-teachers, and piano-tuners.