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Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 4

George Lillie Craig
Craig, George Lillie, Was By Birth A Scotchman. Born In Fifeshire In 1799, He Was Educated For The Church At St. Andrews University, But, Preferring A Literary Career, He Went To London In 1824. His First Work Of Importance Was The Pursuit Of Knowledge Under Difficulties (1831), Forming Part Of ...

George Mifflin Dallas
Dallas, George Mifflin, An American Statesman And Diplomatist, Was B. At Phila Delphia, July 10, 1792. He Was Educated At Princeton College, Where He Graduated With High Honors In 1810. Soon After He Was Called To The American Bar, He Accompanied Mr. Gallatin In His Special Embassy To St. Petersburg ...

George William Frederick Clarendon
Clarendon, George William Frederick Villieits, Earl Of, A Distinguished English Statesman, Was B. 12th Jau., 1800. He Was A Descendant Of Thomas Villiers, Who, In 1752, Married The Heiress Of The Last Lord Clarendon Of The Hyde Family, And Was, In 1756, Made Baron Hyde. And In 1776, Earl Of ...

Georges Cuvier
Cuvier, Georges Citicitien Taopold Dagobert, Baron, Was B. Aug. 23, 1769, At 3iompelgard, A T. Then Belonging To Wurtemberg, But Now To France. His Father Was An Officer In A Swiss Regiment. Having Made Rapid Progress In Learning At The Miimpel Gard Gymnasium, C. Entered, In 1784, The Karlsakademie At ...

Georges Jacques Danton
Danton, Georges-jacques, Was B. At Areis-sur-aube, 28th Oct., 1759. At The Out Break Of The French Revolution, He Was Practicing As An Advocate In Paris, But Did Not Enjoy Much Reputation, On Account Of His Dissolute' Habits. The Fierce Half-savage Nature Of The Man, However, Immediately Found A Fitting Sphere ...

Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli
Clement Xiv., Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, Was B. In 1705 At St. Arcangelo, Near Rimini, Where His Father Was A Physician. At The Age Of 18, He Entered The Order Of Minorites, And Studied Philosophy And Theology, Which He Then Success Fully Taught. His Merits Were Appreciated By The Keen-sighted ...

Governwent Schools Design
Design, Govern:went Schools Or, The Original Designation What Arc Now Offi Cially Termed " Schools Of Art." The Establishment Of Schools Of Design Had For Its Object The Training Of Designers And Artisans In The Principles And Practice Of The Fine Arts, With A View To The Improvement Of The ...

Henri Benjamtn Constant De
Constant De Rebeque, Henri Benjamtn, One Of The Most Distinguished Political Writers And Orators Of France, Was B. At Lausanne On The 25th Oct., 1767. Educated In A German College, He Afterwards Spent Some Time At Edinburgh University, And Here He Is Supposed To Have Imbibed Those Ideas Of Political ...

Henry Cock Burn
Cock Burn, Henry, A Scottish Advocate And Judge, Was B. At Edinburgh On Oct. 20,1779. At The Age Of Eight, C. Began Attendance At The High School Of Edinburgh, But Exhibited No Indications Of Extraordinary Abilities. Sent To The University Of Edinburgh At The Age Of Fourteen, His Powers Began ...

House Conti
Conti, House Ot, A Branch Of The House Of Conde (q.v.). Armand De Bourbon, First Prince Of C., And Brother Of The Great Condo, Was U. At Paris In 1629. Ile Took His Title From The Little Town Of Conti, Situated Five Leagues From Amiens. Of A Feeble Constitu Tion ...

Ilo Citric Acid C
Citric Acid (c,,ilo,,, Or Is A Powerful Tribasic Acid, Which Crystal Lizes In Large Transparent Colorless Prisms. These Crystals Are Readily Soluble In Water And Alcohol, But Are Insoluble In Ether. The Crystals Contain Two Atoms Of Water Of Crystallization (not Expressed In The Above Fornittlie), Which Are Expelled At ...

Imprisonment Of Debtors
Debtors, Imprisonment Of (ante). There Is Little Left Of Imprisonment For Debt In Any Of The United States. In New York, An Net For Its Abolition Was Passed In 1831. Its Main Provisions Are That No Person Shaft Be Imprisoned In Civil Service, At Law Or In Execution In Equity ...

Isaac Adolphe Cre3iieux
Cre3iieux, Isaac Adolphe, 1796-1880; B. At Nimes, France, Of Jewish Parents. He Studied Law, And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1817. About 1830, He Went To Paris, Where He Soon Became Famous As An Advocate, Particularly In The Defense In Political Prosecu Tions. Ile Entered Political Life In 1842 ...

Isaac Da Costa
Costa, Isa.ac Da, An Eminent Poet And Religious Writer, Was B. At Amsterdam, Jan. 14, 1798. His Parents Were Portuguese Jews, Who Had Settled In Holland. The First Aspiration Of His Poetical Genius Having Been Shown By His Hebrew Teacher To 1311 Derdijk, The Latter Expressed Himself Favorably Regarding It, ...

J Pay Ne Collier
Collier, J. Pay Ne, A Well-known Shakespearean Critic And Commentator, Was B. In London In 1789. In 1820, He Published The Poetical Decameron, In 2 Volumes. From 1825 To 1827, He Superintended A New Edition Of Dodsley's Old Plays, In 13 Volumes. Mr. C., Whose Position In Connection With The ...

Jacques David
David, Jacques Louts, The Founder Of The Modern French School Of Painting, And, According To His Countrymen, " The Regenerator Of French Art," Was U. At Paris, 30th Aug., 1748, And Studied Under Vien Both At Paris And Rome. His First Efforts By No Means Indicated The Latent Tendencies Of ...

James Crichton
Crichton, James, Surnamed The "admirable," Was A Native Of Scotland. Where He Was B. In 1551, Or, According To Others, In 1560. His Father, Robert Crichton Of Elliock, In The Co. Of Perth, Was Lord Advocate Of Scotland From 1561 To 1573. On The Mother's Side, C. Was Descended From ...

James Dalrymple
Dalrymple, James, Viscount Stair, A Lawyer And Statesman, Son Of A Small Pro Prietor In Ayrshire, Was B. At Drummurchie, In The Same County, May, 1619, Educated At Glasgow University, And At An Early Age, Entered The Army Raised In Scotland To Repel The Religious Innovations Of Charles I. But ...

James Derwentwater
Derwentwater, James, Earl Of, One Of The Leaders In The Rebellion Of 1715, And The Last Earl Of D., Was The Descendant Of An Ancient Northumberland Family Named 'radcliffe. He Was B. In 1688, Educated In France, And On The Death Of His Father In 1703, D., Then In His ...

James Fenimore Cooper
Cooper, James Fenimore, An American Novelist, Was B. At Burlington, N. J., U. S., Sept. 15, 1789. Having Received His Early Education From A Private Tutor, He, At The Age Of 13, Passed To Yale College, And After Three Years' Study There, Entered The American Navy As A Midshipman. Ile ...

Jan De Witt
De Witt, Jan, A Celebrated Statesman Of Holland, B. At Dort In 1625, Was The Son Of Jacob De Witt, A Vehement Opponent Of William Ii.. Prince Of Orange. Jan Inherited His Father's Hatred Of The Office Of Stadtholder, And The Family That Tilled It. His Educa Tion Was Carefully ...

Jean Antoine Nicolas De
Condorcet, Jean Antoine Nicolas De Caritat, Marquis De, An Eminent French Author, Was H. Sept. 17, 1743, At Itibetn Ont, Near St. Quentin, In The Department Of Aisne; Studied At The College Of Navarre; And By His Essai Stir Le Cakul Integral (afterwards Given In An Extended Form In His ...

Jean Baptiste Cloots
Cloots, Jean Baptiste, Baron, Better Known As Anacharsis Cloots, Was Perhaps The Most Singular Of All The Enthusiasts Brought To The Surface Of Society By The French Rev Olution. He Was Born Near Cleves In 1755, And From His 11th Year Was Educated In Paris. Through Ardent Study Of The ...

Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
Delambre, Jean Baptiste Joseph, A French Astronomer, Was H. At Amiens, 19th Sept., 1749, And Studied First Under Delisle, And Afterwards Under Lalande, With Both Of Whom He Formed A Close Friendship. The Discovery Of The Planet Uranus, In 1781, Gave Him The First Opportunity Of Attracting The Attention Of ...

Jean Delavigne
Delavigne, Jean Francois Casrmin, A French Poet And Dramatic Writer, Was B. At Havre, 4th April, 1793, And Educated At The Lycee Napoleon In Paris, Where He First Attracted Notice By His Poem On The Birth Of The " King Of Rome" In 1811. A Few Years After The Fall ...

Jean Le Clerc
Clerc, Jean Le, Better Known As Johannes Clericus, Was B. At Geneva, Mar. 29, 1657, Where His Father Was A Clergyman. From An Early Period, He Showed A Par Ticular Aptitude For The Study Of Ancient Languages, And In This Department He Is Still A Conspicuous Name. He Also Paid ...

John Dalton
Dalton, John, Was B. Sept. 5, 1766, At Eaglesfield, Near Cockermouth, In Cumber Land. He Received His Early Education In The School Of His Native Place, And, After 1781, In A Boarding-school Kept By A Relative In Kendal. Here His Love Of Mathematical And Physical Studies Was First Developed. He ...

John Piiilpot Ctjrran
Ctjr'ran, John Piiilpot, A Celebrated Legal And Parliamentary Orator, B. At New Market In The County Of Cork, Ireland, July 24, 1750; Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin; And In 1773, Having Resolved To Adopt The Law As A Profession, Went To London And Entered Himself At The Middle Temple. ...

John Williasi Dawson
Dawson, John Williasi, Ll.d., B. 1820, In Picton, Nova Scotia; A Geologist; Graduate Of The University Of Edinburgh. In 1841, Be Made Explorations In Nova Scotia, And Describes Its Geology In Proceedings Of The Geological Society Of London. In 1850. He Was Superintendent Of Education In Nova Scotia, And In ...

Joil Heinr Von Dannecker
Dan'necker, Joil Heinr. Von, A German Sculptor, Was B. At Waldenbuch, In The District Of Stuttgart, 15th Oct., 1758. His Parents Were In The Humblest Circumstances; But Through The Favor Of The Duke Of Wurtemberg, Lie Received A Good Education At The Miditary Academy At Ludwigsburg. His Artistic Talents Were ...

Karl Czerny
Czerny, Karl, 1791-1857; A German Composer Who Wrote A Vast Number Of Pieces. Liszt Was One Of His Pupils. His Practical School Of Composition Is Well .known. Fourth Letter In The Grazco-roman Alphabets, Was Called In The Semitic Ian , Guages Daleth (hence Gr. Delta, I.e., And In All Probability ...

Lake Constance
Constance, Lake (called By The Germans Bodensee Or Bodmansee, From The Old Tle Of Locus Brigantinus Of The Romans), Lies On The North Side Of The Alps Of Switzerland, And Forms A Meeting Point Of The Five Territories—baden, Wiirtemberg. Bavaria, The Tyrol, And Switzerland. It Has An Elevation Variously Estimated ...

Laurens Janszoon Coster
Cos'ter, Laurens Janszoon, According To The Dutch, The Inventor Of Printing, Was B. At Haarlem. About The Year 1370. The Time Of The Invention Ascribed To Him Inurt Have Fallen Between The Years 1420 And 1426. 0.,-at First For His Own Amusement And The Instruction Of His Grandchildren, Eutlettersout Of ...

Law Of Death Bed
Death-bed, Law Of, In Scotland. As The Law. Stood Till Recently, If Any Man, Whilst Suffering From The Disease Of Which He Ultimately Died, Burdened Or Conveyed Away His Heritable Estate, To The Prejudice Of His Lawful Heir, He Was Presumed To Have So Acted In Consequence Of His Inability ...

Laws Of Debtor And
Debtor And Creditor, Laws Of (ante). In The United States, Debtors Find Relief Under Insolvency Laws, Besides That Afforded By A National Bankrupt Law When Such Is In Existence. The Laws Vary Somewhat. In California, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, And Wisconsin, An Insolvent Debtor May Be Discharged Upon Petition And ...

Laws Of Debtor And
Debtor And Creditor, Laws Of. In The History Of This, As Of Almost Every Other Branch Of Jurisprudence, We May If We Will, Trace The March Of Social Progress In General. In The Earlier Stages Of Life In The State, The Arrangements For Borrowing And Lending Are Rarely Such As ...

Letter Of Credit
Credit, Letter Of. This Is The Term Applied To Accounts, Usually In The Form Of A Letter, Addressed By One Party To Another, Whereby The Former Requests The Latter To Pay A Stun Therein Specified To The Bearer Of The Letter, Or Some Other Third Party Named In It, And ...

Louis Charles Antoine Desaix
Desaix De Veygoux, Louis Charles Antoine, A General Of The First French Repub Lie, Was Born At St. Hilaire-d'a.yat, In Auvergne, Aug. 17, 1768. After Studying At The Military School Of Effiat, He Was Appointed In 1792 Aid-de-camp To Prince Victor De Broglie, Then At The Head Of The Army ...

Louis Jean Marie Daubenton
Daubenton, Louis Jean Marie, A French Naturalist, Was B. At Montbar In Bur Gundy, 29th May, 1716. His Father Wished Him To Be An Ecclesiastic, And Sent Him To Acquire A Knowledge Of Theology At The Sorbonne In Paris, But D. Had No Inclination For This Study, And Gave Himself ...

Lower 7
Lower 7. Lower Grunsand 850 8. Wealden Beds 1300 1. The Maestricbt Beds (q.v.) Consist Of Pistolitic Limestones In The N. Of France, And Of Loose Yellowish Sandstones In Holland. 2. The Chalk With Flints Is A Great Mass Of Pure White Pulverulcnt Limestone, Usually Too Soft For A Building-stone, ...

Lower Or French Cochin
Cochin China, Lower. Or French, A Colonial Possession Of France In The Southern Extremity Of The Eastern Portion Of The Indo-chinese Peninsula. Lat. 9' 5' Toll)* N.: Long. 103° To 107° East. This Territory Was Acquired After A War Provoked By The Continuous Persecutions For Many Years Of The Christians ...

Madame Frances Darblay
D'arblay, Madame Frances, (ante), 1752-1840; Daughter Of Charles Burney, An English Professor Of Music. Frances Taught Herself To Read And Write. From Her 15th Year She Lived In An Exceptionally Brilliant Circle Of Literary Men, Musicians And Actors. As Her Step-mother Disapproved Of Her "scribbling," She Burned All Her Manuscripts, ...

Mariners Compass
Compass, Mariner's, Is The Name Given To The Instrument By Which Sailors Are Enabled To Steer Their Course On The Ocean Out Of Sight Of Land, And When Neither Sun Nor Stars Arc Visible. The Ancients, To Whom It Was Unknown, Could Seldom Venture To Lose Sight Of The Coast. ...

Md Combe
Combe, M.d., Brother Of The Following, Was B. In Edinburgh, Oct. 27, 1797. Lie Studied Medicine There And At Paris, And In 1823 Commenced To Practice In His Native City. In 1836, He Received The Appointment Of Physician In Ordinary To The King Of The Belgians, But His Delicate Health ...

Mercantile Consul
Consul, Mercantile, The Name Given To Those Officers Whom The State Maintains In Foreign Countries For The Protection Of Its Trade, And Vindication Of The Rights Of Its Mer Chants, And To Whom The Further Duty Is Assigned Of Keepinn. The Home Government Informed Of All Facts Bearing On The ...

Mile
Mile, An Ancient City On The Coast Of Campania, Founded Conjointly By Colonists From Chalcis In Eubaa, And From Cymte In Asia Minor. According To Strabo, It Was The Earliest Of All The Greek Settlements Either In Italy Or Sicily, But The Precise Date Of Its Foundation Is A Matter ...

Military Colors
Colors, Military, Are Certain Kinds Of Flags Carried With The Army. Standards. Banners, Pennons, Guidons, Ensigns, Colors—all Are Military Flags, Each Originally Having A Distinct Meaning, Now To Some Extent Departed From. The Ensigns Were The Original Of Those Which Are Now Called C., And Which Especially To Infantry Regiments ...

Military Order Or St
Compostel'la, 'military Order Or St. James Of. St. James, The Elder, Was Adopted As The Patron Saint Of Spain, After The Victory Of Clavijo, And His Relics Were Preserved At Compostella, The Capital Of The Province Of Galicia. The Marvels Supposed To Be Performed By These Relics Drew Vast Numbers ...

National
National Covenant.—this Was A Bond Of Union Or Agreement, Drawn Up At Edin Burgh In 1638, By The Leading Presbyterian Ministers, And Subscribed By Vast Numbers Of Persons Of All Ranks Of Life. It Embodied The Confession Of Faith Of 1580 And 1581, Subscribed By James Vi. In His Youth, ...

National Debt
Debt, National, Is The Amount Which Any State Admits Itself To Owe To Those Who May Have Advanced Money For The Use Of The Government On Occasions When Its Expend Iture Has Exceeded Its Ordinary Income. As In The Case Of Individual Debtors Who Sometimes Engage To Pay More Than ...

Naval Dietary
Dietary, Naval. In Fitting Out Ships For The Royal Navy, The Quantity Of Victuals Is Calculated On Two Data—the Established Allowance Or Ration Of Certain Articles, And The Average Experience Of Past Years In Regard To Certain Others. Under The First Cate Gory, The Ration Is Everywhere Equal, From The ...

Nicolas Copernicus
Copernicus, Nicolas, An Eminent Astronomer, Was B. At Thorn, In Prussia, 19th Feb., 1473. He Was Instructed In The Latin And Greek Languages At Home; Afterwards He Was Sent To The University Of Cracow, Where Lie Studied Philosophy And Mathematics, And Took The Degree Of Doctor Of Medicine. He Also ...

Oliver Cromwell
Cromwell, Oliver, Was Born At Huntingdon, April 25, 1599. His Father Was The Younger Son Of Sir Henry Cromwell Of Hinchinbrook, And A Substantial Country Gentle..., Man, Not Likely To Have Been A Brewer, As Some Of Oliver's Earlier Biographers Assert. By His Mother, Genealogists Trace Oliver's Descent From The ...

Of Dionysiits
Dionysiits, Of Halicauxassus, A Learned Critic, Historian, And Rhetorician, Was The. Son Of One Alexander Of Halicarnassus, And Was B. Probably About The Middle Of The Century Before Christ. He Came To Rome At The Termination Of The Civil Wars, 29 B.c., And Resided There For 22 Years, Familiarizing Himself ...

Or Cirripeda Cirrhopoda
Cirrhop'oda, Or Cirrip'eda (gr. Or Lat. Eirrhns-footed), The Animals Which Formed The Genus Lepas Of Linnmus, Ranked By Him Among The Multivalve Testacea, And By Sub Sequent Naturalists Very Generally Regarded As An Order Of Mollusks, Until, In Conse Quence Of Recent Discoveries, A Place Has Been Assigned Them Among ...

Or Cochin China
Co'chin China, Or Anast', An Empire Of Asia, Occupying The Greater Part Of The Eastern Portion Of The Indo-chinese Peninsula. It Lies In 10° To 23° N. Lat., And 102° To 109' C. Long., Including Tonquin And C. C. Proper. It Is Bounded, N. By China, C. By The Gulf ...

Or Coco Maricopas
Coco-maricopas, Or Mmacoras, A Tribe Of Indians, In New Mexico, On The Gila River, Occupying The Same Territory With The Pinos, Who Are Advanced In Civiliza Tion To A Like Extent. The Joint Reservation Is About 25 M. Long And 4 In. Wide. Both Tribes Are Cultivators Of The Soil, ...

Or Cohorn Coehoorn
Coehoorn, Or Cohorn, Menno, Baron Van, Called. The Dutch Vauban, Was B. At Lettingastate, Near Leeuwarden, In 1641, And Studied Fortification And Mathematics Under His Uncle Bernardus Fullenins, Then Professor Of These Sciences At Franeker. Prince Henry Casimir, Stadtholder Of Friesland, Apprised Of The Youth's Great Abilities, Appointed Him. Iu ...

Or Coleopterous Insects Coleoptera
Coleop'tera, Or Coleop'terous Insects (gr. Koleos, A Sheath; And Pteron, A Wing), An Order Of Insects Which, With A Little Change Of Limits And Characters, Has Been Recognized Since The Days Of Aristotle. The Number Of Species Enumerated By Nat Uralists, And Of Which Examples Are Gathered In Museums, Amounts ...

Or Collar I30ce Clavicle
Clavicle, Or Collar-i30:ce, A Bone Which, In Conjunction With The Scapula (q.v:) Or Blade-bone, Forms The Shoulder. It Derives Its Name From The Latin Word Elavis, In Consequence Of Its Resemblance To The Key Used By The Romans. As Reference To The Figure Shows, It Is Placed Horizontally At The ...

Or Colorado Of The
Colorado River, Or Colorado Of The West, A Large River Rising In Utah, And Flowing S. And W. Through Utah And Arizona, And Between Nevada And 'california And Arizona. The Colorado Is Formed By The Junction Of The Green And The Grand Rivers Of Utah In Lat. 38° North. The ...

Or Columbanus Columban
Col'umban, Or Columbanus, Saint, One Of The Most Learned And Eloquent Of The Many Missionaries Whom Ireland Sent Forth To The Continent During The Dark Ages, Was B. In Leinster About The Year 545. Having Studied Under St. Comgall, In The Great Monastery Of Bangor, In Ulster, He Passed Over ...

Or Compromise Measures
Compromise Measures, Or 03rsmus Bill, The Popular Name Of A Series Of Measures Submitted To The U. S. Senate In Jan., 1850, By Henry Clay, Having For Their Object "an Amicable Arrangement Of All Questions In Controversy Between The Free And The Slave States Growing Out Of The Subject Of ...

Or Conservatoire
Conservatoire, Or Conservato'ilium (ital. Conserratorio), A Name Given By The Italians To Schools Instituted For The Purpose Of Advancing The Study Of Music And Main Taining Its Purity. In The Earliest Times, These Schools Were Partly Attached To Benev Olent Institutions And Hospitals; Others, Again, Were Supported By Opulent Private ...

Or Coppice Copse
Copse, Or Coppice, A Natural Wood Or Plantation, Of Which The Trees Are Cut Over From Time To Time, Without Being Allowed To Attain The Size Of Timber Trees, Sending Up New Shoots From Their Roots Or Stools. Some Kinds Of Trees—as The Firs—are Incapable Of Being Treated In This ...

Or Cordova
Cor'dova, Or Cott Dona., A City Of Spain, Capital Of The Province Of Cordova, Is Situ Ated In The Midst Of Olives And Palm-trees On The Guadalquivir, Here Crossed By A Stone Bridge Of 16 Arches, Constructed By The Moors. Lat. 37° 52' N., Long. 4° 49' West. Its Old ...

Or Cornel
Cor'nel, Or Corne'raax Cherry, Cornea Mas, The Cornus Of The Ancients, A Tree Or Shrub Of 15 To 20 Ft. High, Of The Natural Order Cornaceee, A Native Of The Middle And A. Of Europe, And Of Great Part Of Asia. It Is Not Found Wild In Britain, Although It ...

Or Coulies Coolies
Coolies, Or Coulies, Originally The Name Of One Of The Aboriginal Or Hill Tribes Of Hindustan. From The Circumstance That Many Of This Tribe Are Employed As Laborers And Porters In Bombay And Other Places, The Name Is Applied By Europeans In Hindu Stan To Porters In General; And It ...

Or Creasote
Cre'asote, Or Kateasote, Is An Artificial Organic Substance, Generally Obtained From The Products Of The Destructive Distillation Of Wood. It Is Procured Incidentally As One Of The Constituents Of Wood-tar, From Which It Is Separated By A Tedious Process. The Principal Supplies Are Obtained From Stockholm, Archangel, And America. In ...

Or Creatine
Creatine, Or Kne'iorixli (gr. Lavas, Flesh), Was Discovered In 18.3 By Chevreul, But Little Was Known About It Till Liebig Published His Researches On The Ultenti.dry Of Irbod, In 1847. From His Investigations, And Those Of Subsequent Chemists—amongst Whom We May Especially Name The Late Dr. William Gregory, Of Edinburgh—the ...

Or Curtesy Courtesy
Courtesy, Or Curtesy, In Law, Is The Life Interest Which The Surviving Husband Has In The Real Or Heritable Estate Of The Wife. It Is Remarkable That, Both In England And In Scotland. This Customary Right Should Be Regarded As A National Peculiarity—that Iu England It Should Be Called The ...

Or Cycadacee
Cycada'cee, Or A Natural Order Of Exogenous Plants, Consisting Of Small Trees And Shrubs, Somewhat Palms In Their General Appearance. But Much More Nearly Allied To Coltiferce (pines, Firs, Etc.) In Their Botanical C. Being One Of The Few Orders Placed By Lindley Along With Coniferm In His Class Of ...

Or Cyperacfje
Cypera'cfje, Or Catuct'ne,e, Sometimes Popularly Called Sedges, A Natural Order Of Plants, Akin To Grasses, But Having Generally A Triangular Stein, Which Is Without Joints, Or Almost So, And Often Leafless. The Leaves Arc Sometimes Sheathing, But Their Sheaths Are Always Entire, Not Split, As In The Grasses. The Flowers, ...

Or Dammar Pine Dammar
Dam'mar, Or Dammar Pine, Dammara, A Genus Of Trees Of The Natural Order Conit Era, Distinguished From All The Rest Of That Order By Their Broad Lanceolate Leathery Leaves, Which Have Numerous Nearly Parallel Veins, And By Their Seeds Being Winged, Not At The End, But On One Side. The ...

Or Daretcs Darits
Darits, Or Daretcs, Is The Name Of Several Persian Kings, And, Like The Egyptian Word Pharaoh, Is Titular And Not Personal.—daturs I., The Son Of Hystaspes, A Persian Noble, Leagued Himself With Six Other Nobles To Murder Smerdis, The Magian, Who Had Usurped The Throne On The Death Of Cambyses. ...

Or Deir Deer
Deer, Or Deir, Old, A Village And Parish In The N.e. Of Aberdeenshire, In The Dis Trict Of Buchan. Here Are Vestiges Of A Cistercian Monastery Founded About The Year 1219, By William Cumyn, Earl Of Buchan, On The Site Of A Church Believed To Have Been Planted By St.'0olumbti, ...

Or Dennery Dennery
Dennery, Or D'ennery, Adolphe Philippe, A French Dramatic Writer Of Jewish Extraction, Was B. At Paris On June 17,1811. His First Employment Was That Of Clerk To A Notary; He Gave That Up To Become A Painter; And Afterwards, While Still Very Young, He Became A Contributor To The Newspapers. ...

Or Dipiitheritis Diphtheria
Diphtheria, Or Dipiitheri'tis (fr. Dip/amite, From Gr. Dipkthera, A Pellicle), A Name First Applied By M. Bretonneau Of Tours, A Distinguished French Physician, To A Form Of Very Fatal Sore Throat Occurring Epidemically, Chiefly In Children, And Apt To Be Confounded Both With Croup (q.v.) And With Malignant Sore Throat ...

Or Dipiitherms Diphtheria
Diphtheria, Or Dipiitherms (ante). This Is Really A Very Old Disease With A Modern Name, Unfortunate Because Misleading, And The Cause Of Much Inefficient Treat Ment. By Many The Disease Has Been Regarded As A Local More Than A General Affection, But Within The Last Twenty Years Thorough Study Has ...

Or Enc Commexobation
Commexoba'tion, Or Enc,e'nia, The Great Festival Of The Oxford Academic Year, Usually Takes Place On The Third Wednesday After Trinity Sunday. It Is Of Very Ancient Date, Public Exercises And Recitations Having Been Held From Time Immemorial In Honor Of The Act, Or Period When Masters Of Arts And Doctors ...

Or Fault Dislocation
Dislocation, Or Fault, A Term Used In Geology To Characterize Certain Displace Ments Common Among Stratified Rocks. The Agency That Raised These Rocks Above The Waters Of The Sea. Produced In The Elevation Numerous Rents. In Their Simpleq Form, The Rents Are Mere Cracks, The Parts, Though Separated, Remaining Contiguous; ...

Or Inflection Diffraction
Diffraction, Or Inflection, Of The Rays Of Light. It Was Observed By Grimaldi That If A Beam Of The Sun's Light Be Let Into A Dark Room Through A Very Sma)1 Hole, The Shadows Of Things In This Light Will Be Larger Than They Ought To Be If The Rays ...

Or Jumping Mouse Deermouse
Deermouse, Or Jumping Mouse (meriones), A Genus Of American Rodent Quadrupeds Allied To Mice And To Jerboas, And Differing From The Gerbils Of The Warm Parts Of The Old World Only In The Greater Length Of Their Hind-legs, The Nakedness Of The Tail, And The Existence Of A Very Small ...

Or Kaciiii Cutch
Cutch, Or Kaciiii, Gulf Of, A Portion Of The Arabian Sea, 110 M. Long, Running Between Cute!' And Guzerat. Cuthbert, Saint, Of Durham. One Of The Three Great Saints Of England In The Middle Ages, The Other Two Being St. Edmund Of Edmundsbury, And St. Thomas-a Becket Of Canterbury. St. ...

Or Masonry Cyclopean Architecture
Cyclopean Architecture, Or Masonry, The Name Which Has Come To Be Generally Used For A Wall Of Large Irregular Stones, Unhewn And Uncemented. The Term Originated In Greece, Where Structures Of This Kind Were Fabled To Have Been The Work Of The Cyclopes, Or One-eyed Giants. The Walls Of Tiryns, ...

Or Satan Devil
Devil, Or Satan (gr. Diabolos, Accuser;" Heb. Satan, Desig Nates In The Old And New Testament A Mighty Spirit Of Evil Who Has, During Unknown Ages, Ruled Over A Kingdom Of Evil Spirits, And Is In Constant And Restlessly Active Opposition To God. This Belief, However, Was Very Gradually Developed ...

Or Slaty Cleavage Cleavage
Cleavage, Or Slaty Cleavage, Is A Condition Of Rocks In Which They Split Easily Into Thin Plates. The Direction Of These Lamina: May Be In The Plane Of Stratification, But It Much More Frequently Differs From It. C. Is The Result Of An Operation Which Is Subsequent To, And Entirely ...