EYE, DISEASE OF THE. The diseases of the eye enumerated by the surgeon are very numerous, partly from the variety of the tissues and parts of which it is formed, partly because the exposed situation and transparency of the eye enable the diseases to be seen. Nearly all its parts are liable to inflammation and its consequences. See Ora THALMIA. The eyelids are liable to various diseases, as growths of several kinds, most of which the surgeon may remove; inflammation, as blear-eye (ophthalmia tarsi); to be misdirected inwards or outwards, entropium and ectropion (q.v.); and the upper eyelid may fall down (ptosis) from palsy of the common motor oculi nerve. The eyelashes may grow in upon the eye (trichiasis), and produce serious results. When plucked out, they grow again: and if they still grow in upon the eye after this palliative treatment has been tried several times, the surgeon has to cut down on their roots, and destroy them. The duct which conveys away the tears to the nose is liable to inflammation and obstruction, causing watery eye. See LACHRYMAL ORGANS. The cornea is to opacity in various degrees. The mere nebula or cloudy condition, either limited or general, may pass off, and leave the cornea again clear; but the white mark, which is the cicatrix or scar of an ulcer, is permanent, although it may become smaller by the disappearance of the surrounding haze. The pupil may be closed as the result of iritis, or of operations for cataract, and an artificial pupil may be made by either of the three methods—incision, excision, or separation—but the operation is seldom attended with success. For opacities of the crystalline lens, see CATARACT. For an account of dis eases of the nervous parts of the eye, see AMAIMOSIS. Various affections of vision may arise from peculiar or altered conditions of the refracting humors of the eye—as near sightedness (myopia), far-sightedness (presbyopia), the appearance of bodies (muscm) floating in or before the eye; and there may be double vision (diplopia), with two eyes or with one. See Visrox. The parts between the eye and its bony orbit may be the seat of inflammation, abscess, or tumor, making the eye protrude. The movements of the eyeballs may be affected from palsy of the motor nerves, or from contraction of the lateral recti muscles, causing inward or outward squinting. See SQUINTING. The eye
may lose all feeling, from palsy of the fifth pair of nerves. The whole of the same side of the face, nostril, and mouth, will be in the same condition, and the eye becomes inflamed and disorganized. Substances thrown against the eye may injure it. Quick lime is rapidly destructive to the eye, slaked lime and mortar less so. When one of these, or any other caustic, has got into the eye, sweet oil is the best thing to introduce, until the surgeon arrives to remove them. If it is oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) that has been the cause of the injury, a weak solution of soda may be used in the first place to neutralize the acid. In gunpowder explosions near the eye. besides the burn, the par ticles are driven into the surface of it, and will cause permanent black stains over the white of the eye, unless they are carefully removed at the time. When chips of glass, stone, etc., are driven into the interior of the eye, there is little hope of it being saved from destructive inflammation. When only partially sunk into the cornea, as is often the case with sparks of hot iron, or " fires," as they are called, the rubbing of the pro jecting part on the eyelid causes great pain, and the surgeon has not much difficulty in removing them. Most commonly these, or other " foreign bodies," as particles of dust, sand, seeds, flies, etc., merely get into the space between the eyeball and the lids, almost always concealed under the upper, as it is the larger, and sweeps the eye. They cause great pain, from the firmness and sensitiveness of the papillary surface of the lid, soon excite inflammation, and their presence, as the cause, is apt to be overlooked. The lid must be turned round to find them. To do this, pull the front or edge of the lid for wards by the eyelashes, held with the finger and thumb, and at the same time press down the back part of the lid with a small pencil or key. The lid will readily turn round, when the body may he seen about its middle, and may be removed with the corner of a handkerchief. Another plan, which the person himself may try, is to pull forward the upper lid by the eyelashes, and push the lashes of the 'Over lid up behind it, when the foreign body may be brushed out. After the bodies are removed, a feeling as if they were still there may remain for some time.