DUMFRIESSHIRE, a border co. of Scotland, on the Solway firth, having Kirkeud-• bright on the west. It forms an irregular ellipse, 55 m. by 32, with 22 m. of coast line on the Solway firth, to which its surface slopes; area, 1103 sq.m., or 705,946 acres. The n. half is mountainous, rising, in Hartfell, 2,650 ft.; Lowther Hills, 2,522; Black Lark, 2,890; Ettrick Pen, 2,258; and Queensberry, 2,259. The s. part is undulating. The country on • the Solway firth (q.v.) for 10 in. inland is flat, sandy, and gravelly, with tracts of " cobbles, or large stones. D. is drained, princi pally by three rivers—the Nith, 45 m. long; the Annan, 40; and the Esk, 40; which run s.e. and s. into the Solway firth from the n. border of the co., and divide it into three districts or dales, called after the rivers. There are many small lochs, three of them near Lochmaben, containing vendace. D. consists of Silurian, Per mian, and carboniferous strata, with eruptions of trap. Tortoise footprints have been found in the new red sandstone of Annandale, at Corncockle. The mineral products are coal, limestone, ironstone, lead, and silver. There are extensive lead mines at Wanlockhead, 2 m. from Leadhills, in Lanarkshire. Gold has been
obtained in quartz veins in the hills near Wanlockhead; a mass of 5 ozs. found there is now in the British museum. There are noted sulphureous springs at Moffat, and chalybeate ones at Hartfell. The climate is moist and mild, and most of the land has a southern exposure. There are rich alluvial tracts along the rivers and on the Sol way firth. The Lochar Moss, a peat tract on the Solway firth, is 13 by 2 to 3 in., and contains shells, trees, and fragments of ships. The chief occupations are agriculture, and the rearing of cattle, sheep, and pigs. In 1875, there were 214,170 acres, or between one third and one fourth of the co., under all kinds of crops. Of these, 49,710 were under corn crops, and 25,379 under green crops. Sheep-farms occupy the hills. The chief exports are cattle, sheep, grain, wool, hams, and bacon. There are fisheries of salmon in the rivers. In 1871, D. had 74,808 inhabitants; 12,672 children between 5 and 13 years of age in receipt of education. D. sends one member to parliament. The co. abounds in antiquities. D. formed part of Valentia in Roman times, and subsequently of the kingdom of Strathclyde.