GREAT EASTERN. Time mightiest ship in time world has had an eventful history, marked in its earlier years by a large share of disaster. In 1852 an Steam Navigation Company" was formed, to mcintain an ocean steam-route to the east round the cape, of Good Hope. In 1853 the directors came to a conclusion that, owing to the cost of maintaining coaling-stations on the way, such a route would not pay unless the ship could carry coal enough for the voyage out and borne, besides a large number of passengers and a great cargo. Mr. Brunel was employed to plan, and Mr. Scott Russell to build, a vast steamer that would meet these requirements. The scheme was for a ship that would accommodate 1000 passengers, 5,000 tons of merchandise, and 15.000 tons of coal for fuel. Its arrangements (setting aside later alterations) were briefly as follows: Length, 680 ft. between perpendiculars, or 692 ft. upper deck; breadth, 83 ft., or 118 over paddle-boxes; height of hull, 60 ft., or 70 to top of bulwarks. Bottom flat for 40 ft. ix width, without keel. Framework of 35 ribs or webs of plate-iron, 3 ft. deep, immensely strengthened, and extending from end to end of the ship, at 3 to 5 ft. apart; and cross-webs, of similar strength, connecting these at intervals. A double wall or skin of iron plate, outside and inside those ribs, thereby converting the whole hull into a cellular structure, like the top and bottom of the 3fenai Britannia tubular bridge. The plates for this purpose were 10,000 in number, some of them 28 ft. long. The cellular structure was continued along the bottom and about 5 ft. up the side, and any one of the cells thus formed could be filled with water. Ten partitions of plate, cross wise of the ship, divided time interior into 11 water-tight compartments, further sub divided by longitudinal partitions. The propelling power comprised both paddle and screw, The paddle-engines had 4 boilers, each with 400 brass flue-tubes; there were 4 engines (made by Scott Russell at Millwall). with cylinders of 14 ft. stroke. and 74 in.
diameter; the paddle-wheels were 56 ft. diameter by 13 deep. with 30 spokes or radii. The screw-engines (made by Boulton and Watt at Soho) had 6 boilers; the•4 engines had cylinders, each 4 ft. stroke by 84 in. dilimeter, with piston-rods 7+ in. thick; the propeller-shaft was 160 ft. long, and in some parts 24 in. diameter, with a screw pm !mailer at one end 24 ft: in diameter. The coal-hunkers, to supply all the furnaces, would contain 14.000 tons; .the smoke from the f mirmices ascended .5 funnels, 100 ft. high by • in diameter; each of the 10 boilers, when full of water, weighed 10u tons; the steam was com'eyed from the boilers to the engines through a pipe 45 in. diameter. Setting aside the nominal power. all the 8 engines, at full force, were estimated to work up to 11,000 horse-power. There were 6 masts, 5 of them iron, carrying 7,000 yards of sail as auxiliary to the steam-power; the masts, yards, gaffs, and large spars were mostly of iron plate, strengthened inside in various ways; the shrouds and standing-rigging were of iron-wire ropes; the anchors, 10 in number. were some of them 10 tons each: the chain-cables were, collectively, a mile long. with links of 50 lbs. each. The vast wall shied compartments of the ship had facilities for conversion into cabins for 800 saloon passengers. 2,000 second-class, 1200 third-class, and 400 officers and crew; or 5,000 !night have been accommodated in all, if emigrants or troops. The height of the 'mum decks was 13 ft. ; and all, whether for first, second, or third class passengers, were more lofty 'than known in any other ship. Such were the plans for the mighty ship; were never fully carried out in all their details, owing to numerous alterations and refit tings; nevertheless, 'the description faithfully conveys an idea of the general character istics. The curvatures of the hull, in length, breadth, and height are shown by diagrams in SHIP-BUILD1NG.