HAJIPUR, a t. in Bengal on the Gandak near its confluence with the Ganges, said to have been founded about 500 years ago, by Haji Ilyas, the supposed ramparts of whose fort are still visible. Hajipur figures conspicuously in the history of the struggles between Akbar and his rebellious Afghan governors of Bengal, having been twice besieged and captured by the imperial troops, in 1572 and again in 1574. Its command of water traffic in three directions makes the town a place of considerable commercial importance. Within the limits of the old fort is a small stone mosque, very plain, but of peculiar architecture, and attributed to Haji Ilyas. Two other mosques and a small Hindu and Buddhist temple are in the town or its immediate vicinity. Beside the ordinary courts, the town contains a school, post-office, charitable dispensary, and dis tillery. Pop. '72, 22,006.
HASS (Haar, HaacE), (Heb. Hag, one of the three festivals appointed to the Jews for the purpose of pilgrimage to pilgrimage, emphatically pilgrimage, to the Kaaba (q. v.) or temple of Mecca, which every Mohammedan, male or female, whose means and health permit, is bound to perform, once at least in his life, otherwise, "he or she might as well die a Jew or a Christian." Mohammed, after many fruitless attempts to abolish altogether the old custom of pilgrimage—prevalent among most peoples in ancient,' and some even in modern times, and perhaps arising from an innate, instinctive, traveling' propensity, hut is not unfrequently fraught with mischievous consequences—was coin; polled finally to confirm it, only taking care to annul its idolatrous rites, and to destroy the great number of ancient idols around Mecca. The 12th month of the Mohammedan year, the Dsul Hajjeli, is the time fixed for the celebration of the solemnities, and the pilgrims have to set out for their journey one or two months before (in Shawl or Dhulkada), according to the respective distances they have to traverse. They assemble at certain variously appointed places near Mecca, in the beginning of the holy month, and the commencement of the rites is made by the male pilgrims here first , ting on the Hiram or sacred habit, which consists of two woolen wrappers—one around their middle, the other around their shoulders; their head bare, and their slip pers must neither cover the heel nor the instep. It is enjoined that the pilgrims, while
th -y wear this dress, should be particularly careful to bring their words and thoughts into harmony with the sanctity of the territory they now tread, it territory in which even the life of animals is to be held sacred from any attack. Arrived at Mecca, the pilgrims proceed at once to the temple, and begin the holy rites there by walking first quickly, then slowly, seven times round the Kaaba, starting from the corner where the black stone is fixed (Tawaf). This ceremony is followed by the Sai, or running, likewise per formed first slowly, then quickly, between the two mounts Safft, and Merwa, where, before Mohammed's time, the two idols Asaf and Nayelah had been worshiped. The next rite takes place on the ninth of the Dhulhajja, and consists in the Wuknf or stand ing in prayer on the mountain of Arafat, near Mecca, till sunset. The whole of the succeeding night in spent in holy devotions at Mogdalifa. between Arafat and Mina. The next by daybreak, the pilgrims visit the Masher-al-IN-am, the sacred monument (a place where the prophet stood so long in prayer that his face began to shine), and then proceed to the valley of Mirra, where they throw seven (or seventy) stones at three pillars, for the purpose of putting the devil to flight. The pilgrimage is completed with the slaughtering of the sacrifices on the same day and in the same place. The sacrifice over, they shave their heads and cut their nails, burying, the latter on the same spot. They then take leave of :lie Kaaba, and, taking with them some sacred souvenirs,. such its dust from the prophet's tomb, water from the well Zemzem, etc., they proceed to their homes. The return of the holy caravans is watched every where with the most intense anxiety, and is celebrated with great pomp and rejoicings. Henceforth, the pilgrim never omits to prefix the proud name of Hajji to his name. It is permitted that those who, through bodily infirmity, are incapacitated from perform ing the holy journey themselves, may send a substitute, who acts as their representative in almost every respect, but this substitute has no share whatever in the merits and rewards belonging to the Hajj.