HOSPODAR, a Slavonic title once commonly given to the governors of and Wallachia, whereas the prince of Romania is now known under the native Romanic title of domnu. Another Slavonic term, wojetcod, was also often given to the hospodar, the term wojewod signifying the right and dignity of leading the army (being thins identical with duke), while hospodar (gospodar, gospod, gospodin, in the various Slavonic dialects) means simply master (dominus). Formerly the Lithuanian princes were likewise called hospodars, and the Polish kings, down to the time of Sobieski, assumed this title in their diplomatic negotiations with Russia. Gosudor (ruler, mon arch) is even now tile title of the emperor of Russia, and ineonversation signifies master.
See MOLDAVIA ARD WAYA,AbIrtA, HOST (Lat. hostia, a victim), the name given in the Roman Catholic church to the consecrated bread of the eucharist. It is so called in conformity with the doctrine of that church that the eucharist is a "sacrifice," in the strict sense of the word. The host in the Latin church is a thin circular disk of unleavened bread, made of the finest flour, and generally bearing some emblematic device, as the crucifixion, the lamb, or some words or initials of words having reference to the sacrifice. In the Greek and
other oriental churches, as well as in the various Protestant communities, the eucharist is celebrated in leavened bread, only differing from ordinary bread in being of a finer quality; and one of the grounds of separation from the west alleged by Michael Ceru larius was the western practice of using unleavened bread. The (Jacek and Protestant controversialists allege that, in the early church, ordinary or leavened bread was always used, and that our Lord himself, at the last supper, employed the same. Even the learned cardinal Bona and the Jesuit Sirmond are of the same opinion; but most Roman divines, with the great Mabillon at their head, contend for the antiquity of the use of the unleavened bread, and especially for its conformity with the institution of our Lord, inasmuch as at the paschal supper, at which "he took bread, and blessed, and brake it," none other than the Unleavened was admissible (Exod. xii. 8, 15; Levit. xxiii. 5). See Klee's Doginatik, iii. 190.