HENRY II., SAINT, 972-1024; emperor of Germany, grandson of Henry I. He was crowned at Mainz, June 7, 1002. His most determined enemy during the greater part of his reign was BolesInns II. of Poland, who annexed Bohemia, and during the king's absence in Italy broke into Lusatia and Meissen. Henry hurried back, defeated Boles bins, in 1005, and granted Bohemia fief to Jaromir, son of the previous duke. Boles laus, however, continued the war, which was not ended until 1018, when Henry was obliged to conclude peace on terms more favorable to Poles than he would voluntarily have granted. In the midst of this struggle he had to make war on A dalbero, his wife's brother, who seized the archbishopric of TreveS, and was protected in his claim by another brother of the empress. the duke of Bavaria. I3oth were overcome, and deprived of their dignities, although Bavaria was ultimately restored to the elder of the two brothers. Henry also put down rebellions in Flanders and Meissen, and concluded an important treaty with Rudolf III. of Burgundy, whereby after Rudolf's death the country was to be united to Germany. In 1013 Henry went for the second time to
Italy, where Harduin had again raised himself to the throne. The usurper was dis placed, and in 1014 Henry was crowned emperor at Rome by Benedict VIII.; whom he had confirmed in the papal see in opposition to the anti-pope Gregory. At the request of Benedict the emperor returned to Italy in 1022 in order to drive back the Greeks who were steadily pressing northwards. In this enterprise lie associated himself with the Normans, why thus became one of the most important factors in the political life of Italy. Henry was canonized by pope Eugenius III. ; and at a later time his wife, Cunigunde, was also ranked among the saints. The church has rarely bad a more splendid benefactor than Henry II., whose ruling policy was to counter-balance the power of the great nobles by increasing that of the spiritual princes. He also founded the bishopric of Bamberg, which was placed under,. the immediate jurisdiction of the pope, and to which be left by will all his treasure and his magnificent allodial posses sions.