HONTHEIX, 'TORN NictrobAs vox. was b. at Treves in 1701. He was educated in the Jesuit school of his native city, studied canon law at Louvain under the celebrated Van Espen, and afterwards taught it for 10 years at Treves, of which see lie became coadjutor in 1748, with the title of bishop in partibus iVidellum. He is the author of . two voluminous works on the history of Treves, Historia Trerirensis biptomatiea vols. fol., 1750), and Peodrmatte Mist.Treeireneis (2 vols, fol. 1757). But his literary career is chiefly memorable for a theological essay, which, although with very mean preten sions to learning, by the novelty and boldness of its views created an immense sensa tion in the theological world. The title of this work, which was in Latin, and dedica ted to pope Clement XIII.. is " On the State of the Church, and on the Legitimate Authority of the Roman Pontiff," a work composed with a view to the reunion of Christian sects. The name of the author was for a long time unknown, the work being published under the nom de plume of Justinus Febronius (a name said to be taken from that of Hontheim's niece, who was called Justina Febronia), whence the system of church government which the work propounds has been called Febranlanism Ills scheme may be described as a very exaggerated form of Gallicanism, with the democratie element of Coa.regatiouahism superadded. The work, immediately after its
appearance, was condemned by Clement XIII., as well as by many individual bishops. It drew forth a number of refines. the most important of which are those of Zaccaria (1767) and Ballerini (1768). Pius VI.. in 1778, required from Hontheim a retraction of these doctrines. This retraction, however, was modified by a subsequent Commentary, published at Frankfort in 1781. to which, at the desire of the pope, cardinal Gerciil replied. Hontheim eventually made full submission to the church. He died in his 90th year, at Montquinten in Luxemburg, Sept. 2, 1790.—See Menzel's Netters Geschieht• der heutschen, xi. 456, and foil, • RON17tD (land-defenders). the name given in Hungary under the earlier kings to the national champions. With the disappearance of these, the word too disappeared; but in the summer of 1848 it was revived, and applied` first to those Hungarian volunteers dispatched to the south against the SWPi:MS, and subsequently, when the war with Austria really commenced, to the whole patriotic army, Since the reconstitution of Austrian affairs after 1866. the name honved has been given to the landwehr of the Hungarian portion of the empire.