JULIUS, the name of three popes, of whom the second and third deserve to be noticed.—Julius II., originally cardinal Della Rovcre, a nephew of Sixtus IV., was born at Albizzola, near Savona. He was vehemently opposed during his cardinalate to the designs of Alexander VI. for the avrandizement of his family, and one of his earliest measures on his election to the pontificate, in 1503, was to resume possession of the duchy of the Romagna, which had been bestowed upon Caesar Borgia. Julius was himself beyond all suspicion of nepotism or selfish designs of aggrandizement; hut his public carreer during his pontificate was almost entirely devoted to political and mili tary enterprises for the complete re-establishment of the papal sovereignty in its:Inc:lent territory—Bologna, Ferrara, etc.—and • for the extinction of foreign domination and foreign influence in Italy.. In pursuing his designs for the purpose of compelling front the republic of Venice the restitution of the papal proicinces on the Adriatic, Julius not only entered into the league of Cambray with the emp6ror Maximilian and Louis XII. of France, but had recourse to spiritual arms, by placing the republic under the ban of the church; and on the submission of Venice, apprehending the ambitious designs of Louis, he withdrew from the league, and entered into an opposite alliance, the "holy league," to which Spain. England, and Switzerland were parties. Hence arose his bitter quarrel with Louis XII., in which the latter attempted, but ineffectually, to enlist the sympathies of the church against the pope. The council of Pisa which was convened under Louis's influence, was an utter failure; and the opposing council, fifth of the Lateran,. assembled by Julius, but not brought to a close during his lifetime, completely
frustrated the designs of Louis. It is alleged that, in his hatred of France, Julius was desirous of drawing even the Turks into the league; but this allegation is negatived by his entire career, one of the main features of which was a design for a holy war. in which he himself should take the command. As an ecclesiastical ruler Julius has little to recommend him in the eyes of churchmen. As a political sovereign he is described by Ranke as "a noble soul, full of lofty plans for the glory and weal of Italy;" and prof. Leo considers him, with all his detects, as one. of the noblest characters of that age in Italy. He was a liberal and judicious patron of art, and a friend of the rising literature of the time. lie died Feb. 22, 1513.—Julius III., a native of Monte San Savino, near Arezzo, was known before his elevation to the pontificate as cardinal del Monte. He was one of the four legates of the pope under whom the council of Trent was opened; arid after his election to the papacy in 1550, he himself reopened (in 1551) that council, which had been,suspended for upwards of two years. He is eounkted with English history as having sent cardinal Pole to organize.with 3Iary the reunion of flue kingdom with Rome; but his general government of the church is marked by no very striking events, and his private character is sullied by the taint of nepotism. He died Mar. 23, 1555.