LUXEMBOURG, FRANCOIS HENRI DE MONTMORENCY, Duke of, marshal of France, a famous gen. of Louis XIV., b. at Paris, Jau. 8, 1628; was the posthumous son of Francois de Montmorency, count of Bouteville, who was beheaded on account of a duel. • Ilis aunt, the mother of the great Conde, brought him up as a companion of her son, with whom he took part in the disturbances of the Fronde, signalizing himself in the battles then fought. Being afterwards received into favor by Louis XIV., he served as a volunteer under Turcnne in Flanders (1667), in Franche Comte as the lieut.gen. of Conde, and in the Netherlands, where the battles of Grool, Deventer, Zwoll, etc., greatly increased his reputation. He had, however, the misfortune to embroil himself in a quarrel with the all-powerful Louvois, the results of which were disastrous to his pros pects for a time. He assumed the title of Luxembourg on marrying the heiress of that house. Some of his military exploits were very daring, and were executed with great skill; his retreat from Holland, in particular, being executed in such a masterly manner that it placed him among the foremost generals of his age: but lie largely participated in the savage burning of towns, and desolating of conquered districts, which disgraced the French arms at that period, though it is believed that in this he only carried out the positive instructions which he reeeived from Louvois (q.v.). In the campaign of 1677
he defeated the prince of Orange at Mont-Cassel, took St. Omer, and compelled the prince to raise the siege of Charleroi. After the peace of Nimeguen, Louvois attempted to accomplish his destruction hy means almost incredible. Having got possession of a contract between Luxembourg and a wood-merchant, he caused it to be chanrred so that it became a contract with the devil. Upon this, Luxembourg was summoneif before the eliambre ardente, and obeyed the citation, although his friends advised him to leave the country. He was thrown into the Bastile, and there confined in a dark dungeon. After fourteen months, he was acquitted and released, but banished to one of his domains, where he lived forgotten for ten years, at the end of which time, the king appointed him to the command of the army in Flanders. On July 1, 1690. he gained a victory over the prince of Waldeck at Fleurus; on Aug. 4, 1692, and July 29, 1693, over William III. of England, at Steenkirk and at Neerwinden. He took Charleroi, Oct. 12, 1693. He died Jan. 4, 1695. Luxembonrg was crooked in shape and feeble in body, but possessed an inexhaustible activity of spirit.