MEADE, GEOROE GORDON, 1813-72; b. Cadiz, Spain; his parents being temporarily in that country. On their return to America, lie was sent to the boys' school in Wash ington, D. C., at that time under the direction of Salmon P. Chase, afterwards chief justice of the supreme court of the United States. On leaving this school, lie was sent to a military school at Mount Airy; and from there, in Sept., 1831, entered the military academy at West Point, where he graduated in the summer of 1835. He entered the army as brevet second lieut. of the third artillery, and at the end of the same year, 1833, received his commission as second lieut.; but on Oct. 26, 1836, he resigned from the army, after having, however, seen some active service in the Florida war, even within his brief military experience. He now adopted the profession of a civil engineer; and between 1837 and 1842, was employed aq BII assistant engineer in the surveys made by the U. S. government of the delta of the _Mississippi, the Texas boundary, and the north eastern boundary of the United States. On May 19, 1842, he was reappointed to the army, with the rank of second lieut. of topographical engineers. On the breaking out of the war with Mexico, in May, 1846, when gen. Taylor crossed the Rio Grande, he was ordered to the front, and served throughout the war, being a member of the staff of gen. Taylor, and that of gen. Scott, and distinguishing himself in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and Monterey. He was brevetted first lieut., for gallant con duct at Monterey, in the five days' fight which closed Sept. 24, 1846. On his return to the states, the citizens of Philadelphia presented hitn with a sword. After peace was declared, lieut. Meade was employed in superintending river and harbor improvements, and in the construction of lighthouses on Delaware bay, and off the coast of Florida. He was promoted to be first lieut. in 1831, and capt. in 1856, and had charge of the national survey of the northern lakes until 1861, being at Detroit, Mich., at the period of the outbreak of the rebellion. He was ordered to Washington, and received his com mission as brig.gen. of volunteers, bearing date Aug. 31, 1861, with the command of the second brigade of the Pennsylvania reserve corps. He was in the action at Dranes ville, Va., Dec. 20, the first victory of the army of the Potomac; was at Mechanicsville, June 26, 1862; at the battle of Cold Harbor, on the following day; and served with his reserves. with which he had becotne identified, continuing with McClellan throughout the peninsular campaign, in _McCall's division, being severely wounded at the battle of Frazier's farm (White Oak Swamp), June 30. He was appointed maj. of topographical engineers, June 18, 1862. On Aug. 29-30 he was engaged in the second battle of Bull. Run; and in September took command of a division of the first army corps (gen. Rey nolds), and at the battle of Antietam was slightly wounded and had two horses shot under him. Ile was given command of the fifth army corps, and on Nov. 29, 1862, was commissioned maj.gen. of volunteers. He WEIS engaged in the battles of Chancellors ville and Fredericksburg; covering the retreat at Chancellorsville with his corps, and guarding the crossings, until the entire army was safely over the river. On June 28,
1863, he was unexpectedly ordered to relieve gen. Hooker of the command of the army of the Potomac. This WaS the period of Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, and the union army was in hot march to interfere with his plans, and, lf possible, drive his sanguine forces south again. Portions of Lee's army had reached York, Carlisle, and the Susque hanna; but upon the advance of the federal army, these were called together from their. various posts, and by order of gen. Lee, drawn in, and concentrated for d'great field struggle. Those which were at Chatnbersburg crossed the South inountain towards Gettysburg, and those that were nearer the Susquehanna converged upon the same point. This was done by Lee, apparently under the impression that Meade designed to cut off his communications. And had it not been for Meade's mameuvering, Lee would have crossed the Susquehanna and struck IIarrisburg, and probably even have made a dash at Philadelphia. Gen. Meade now sa.bv that a great battle was inevitable, and at first concluded to receive it at the line of Pipe-clay creek, a small stream running a few miles s.e. of Gettysburg. But on consultation with gen. Hancock, who had been appointed to gen. Reynolds's command (that distinguished officer having been shot), and on the selection of Gettysburg by the latter, as a better ground on which to olit the battle, he made that his choice. [Swinton's Army of the Potomac.] The great battle was fought July 1-3, 1863. See GETTYSBURG. 1.:4e11. Meade's commission as brig.gen. in the U. S. army, bore the last of these dates. For the inestimable service which he had accomplished by the victory of Gettysburg, he was publicly thanked by a resolution of eongress passed Jan. 28, 1866: " for the skill and heroic valor with which at Gettys burg he repulsed, defeated, and drove back, broken and dispirited, beyond the Rappa hannock, the veteran army of the rebellion." From May 4, 1864, to _April 9, 1865, gen. Meade commanded the army of the Potomac, under gen. Grant, through the disastrous struggle in the Wilderness, and until the capture of Petersburg, and the surrender of Lee. On Aug. 18, 1864, he was commissioned a maj.gen. in the U. S. army. At the close of the war he was placed in command of the military division of the Atlantic, which command he retained front July 1,1865, to Aug. 6, 1866. During the years 1866-67 he was in command of the department of the e.; and subsequently of the third military district of the s. (under the reconstruction laws), includina. Alabama, Georgia, and Florida, with his headquarters in Philadelphia. He was higrily honored by his fellow citizens for his high character, his great military ability, and the important share he had borne in the war of the rebellion. Philadelphians presented him with the house in which he died (Nov. 6, 1872); and after his death a fund of $100,000 \vas collected by subscrip tion, and presented to his family.